Impact of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on Skeletal Muscle Metabolism

Abstract

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has garnered special attention as a food bioactive compound that prevents and attenuates obesity. Although most studies on the effects of CLA on obesity have focused on the reduction of body fat, a number of studies have demonstrated that CLA also increases lean body mass and enhances physical performances. It has been suggested that these effects may be due in part to physiological changes in the skeletal muscle, such as changes in the muscle fiber type transformation, alteration of the intracellular signaling pathways in muscle metabolism, or energy metabolism. However, the mode of action for CLA in muscle metabolism is not completely understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the effects of CLA on skeletal muscle metabolism. Given that CLA not only reduces body fat, but also improves lean mass, there is great potential for the use of CLA to improve muscle metabolism, which would have a significant health impact.

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Scheme 1
Fig. 1

Abbreviations

ACC:

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase

AMPK:

AMP-activated protein kinase

BMR:

Basic metabolic rate

CLA:

Conjugated linoleic acid

CPT:

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase

ERR:

Estrogen-related receptor

FOXO:

Forkhead box O

GLUT4:

Glucose transporter type 4

IL-6:

Interleukin 6

LPL:

Lipoprotein lipase

MEF2:

Myocyte enhancer factor 2

MHC:

Myosin heavy chain

NFκB:

Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

NRF:

Nuclear respiratory factor

PGC-1α:

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α

PPARδ:

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ

RMR:

Resting metabolic rate

SIRT1:

Silent information regulator two protein 1

TAG:

Triglyceride

TNF-α:

Tumor necrosis factor α

UCP:

Uncoupling protein

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Acknowledgments

The authors thank Ms. Jayne M. Storkson for help preparing this manuscript and Dr. Deborah J. Good at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University for providing Nhlh-2 knockout animals. This material is based on work supported in part by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Massachusetts Agricultural Experimental Station, and the Department of Food Science under Project No. MAS00998 and MAS00450. Yoo Kim was supported in part by the Charm Sciences scholarship from the Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Dr. Yeonhwa Park is one of the inventors of CLA use patents assigned to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation.

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Kim, Y., Kim, J., Whang, K. et al. Impact of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on Skeletal Muscle Metabolism. Lipids 51, 159–178 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-015-4115-8

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Keywords

  • CLA
  • Conjugated linoleic acid
  • Skeletal muscle metabolism
  • Obesity
  • Lean body mass
  • Physical activity