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Rosiglitazone, but Not Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate, Attenuates the Decrease in PGC-1α Protein Levels in Palmitate-Induced Insulin-Resistant C2C12 Cells

Abstract

Alteration of lipid metabolism is an important mechanism for the treatment of insulin resistance. PGC-1α, a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function, plays an important role in the improvement of insulin sensitivity by increasing fatty acids β-oxidation. In the present study, the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an anti-obesity agent and enhancer of lipid catabolism, on PGC-1α protein expression was examined and compared with anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone (RGZ). After differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts to myotubes, insulin resistance was induced by palmitate treatment. Then the expression of the PGC-1a gene and glucose uptake were evaluated before and after treatment with RGZ and EGCG. Palmitate treatment significantly decreased PGC-1α protein expression in C2C12 cells (P < 0.05). RGZ could restore the expression of PGC-1α in palmitate treated cells (P > 0.05), while EGCG had no significant effect on the expression of this gene (P < 0.05). RGZ and EGCG significantly improved glucose uptake (by 2- and 1.54-fold, respectively) in myotubes treated with palmitate. These data suggest that RGZ and EGCG both exert their anti-diabetic activity by increasing insulin sensitivity, but with different molecular mechanisms. This effect of RGZ, unlike EGCG, is mediated, at least partly, by increasing PGC-1α protein expression.

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Abbreviations

RZG:

Rosiglitazone

EGCG:

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate

PGC-1α:

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α

BSA:

Bovine serum albumin

2-DOG:

2-Deoxyglucose

T2DM:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

FAs:

Fatty acids

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Acknowledgments

This project was supported financially by deputy for research and technology of Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Grant 901009/60). We also thank all volunteers for their participation in the study.

Conflict of interest

All authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Salar Bakhtiyari.

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Karimfar, M.H., Haghani, K., Babakhani, A. et al. Rosiglitazone, but Not Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate, Attenuates the Decrease in PGC-1α Protein Levels in Palmitate-Induced Insulin-Resistant C2C12 Cells. Lipids 50, 521–528 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-015-4016-x

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-015-4016-x

Keywords

  • Insulin resistance
  • C2C12 muscle cells
  • PGC-1α gene
  • Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate
  • Rosiglitazone