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Postprandial Lipid Responses do not Differ Following Consumption of Butter or Vegetable Oil when Consumed with Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Abstract

Dietary saturated fat (SFA) intake has been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and increased risk for the development of chronic diseases. However, some animal studies have demonstrated that dietary SFA may not raise blood lipid levels when the diet is sufficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). Therefore, in a randomised cross-over design, we investigated the postprandial effects of feeding meals rich in either SFA (butter) or vegetable oil rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), in conjunction with n-3PUFA, on blood lipid profiles [total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TAG)] and n-3PUFA incorporation into plasma lipids over a 6-h period. The incremental area under the curve for plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, TAG and n-3PUFA levels over 6 h was similar in the n-6PUFA compared to SFA group. The postprandial lipemic response to saturated fat is comparable to that of n-6PUFA when consumed with n-3PUFA; however, sex-differences in response to dietary fat type are worthy of further attention.

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Abbreviations

CVD:

Cardiovascular disease

DHA:

Docosahexaenoic acid

EDTA:

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EPA:

Eicosapentaenoic acid

HDL-C:

High density lipoprotein cholesterol

iAUC:

Incremental area under the curve

LCn-3PUFA:

Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

LDL-C:

Low density lipoprotein cholesterol

PUFA:

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

n-3PUFA:

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

n-6PUFA:

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

SFA:

Saturated fat

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Acknowledgments

Authors are grateful to EPAX Norway AS (Norway) for providing, free of charge, the fish oil concentrate capsules; Ms Melissa Fry for assistance with the fatty acid analysis; the Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition for part funding of the project and the Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI) Register of Volunteers. CBD was supported by a scholarship from Coordenação Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico—CNPq.

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The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Manohar L. Garg.

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Dias, C.B., Phang, M., Wood, L.G. et al. Postprandial Lipid Responses do not Differ Following Consumption of Butter or Vegetable Oil when Consumed with Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Lipids 50, 339–347 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-015-4003-2

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Keywords

  • Postprandial lipemia
  • Saturated fat
  • n-6PUFA
  • n-3PUFA
  • Plasma lipids