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Changes in Tissue Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Farmed Rainbow Trout in Response to Dietary Camelina Oil as a Replacement of Fish Oil

Abstract

Camelina oil (CO) replaced 50 and 100 % of fish oil (FO) in diets for farmed rainbow trout (initial weight 44 ± 3 g fish−1). The oilseed is particularly unique due to its high lipid content (40 %) and high amount of 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA) (30 %). Replacing 100 % of fish oil with camelina oil did not negatively affect growth of rainbow trout after a 12-week feeding trial (FO = 168 ± 32 g fish−1; CO = 184 ± 35 g fish−1). Lipid and fatty acid profiles of muscle, viscera and skin were significantly affected by the addition of CO after 12 weeks of feeding. However, final 22:6n-3 [docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and 20:5n-3 [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)] amounts (563 mg) in a 75 g fillet (1 serving) were enough to satisfy daily DHA and EPA requirements (250 mg) set by the World Health Organization. Other health benefits include lower SFA and higher MUFA in filets fed CO versus FO. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) confirmed that the δ13C isotopic signature of DHA in CO fed trout shifted significantly compared to DHA in FO fed trout. The shift in DHA δ13C indicates mixing of a terrestrial isotopic signature compared to the isotopic signature of DHA in fish oil-fed tissue. These results suggest that ~27 % of DHA was synthesized from the terrestrial and isotopically lighter ALA in the CO diet rather than incorporation of DHA from fish meal in the CO diet. This was the first study to use CSIA in a feeding experiment to demonstrate synthesis of DHA in fish.

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Acknowledgments

This study was supported by Genome Atlantic, the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA)—Atlantic Innovation Fund (AIF), the Research and Development Corporation of Newfoundland (RDC) and the NSERC. The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Matthew Rise for conceptual contribution to the project; Christina Bullerwell for feeding and maintenance of fish; Jeanette Wells, John J. Heath and Geert Van Biesen for technical support; Dr. Marije Booman, Jamie Fraser, Zhiyu Chen for assistance with fish sampling.

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Correspondence to Stefanie M. Hixson.

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Hixson, S.M., Parrish, C.C. & Anderson, D.M. Changes in Tissue Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Farmed Rainbow Trout in Response to Dietary Camelina Oil as a Replacement of Fish Oil. Lipids 49, 97–111 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-013-3862-7

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-013-3862-7

Keywords

  • Camelina sativa
  • Rainbow trout
  • Lipids
  • Fatty acids