, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 105–113 | Cite as

Comparative Effects of Sandalwood Seed Oil on Fatty Acid Profiles and Inflammatory Factors in Rats

  • Guipu Li
  • Anish Singh
  • Yandi Liu
  • Bruce Sunderland
  • Duo LiEmail author
Original Article


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sandalwood seed oil on fatty acid (FA) profiles and inflammatory factors in rats. Fifty male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into five different dietary groups: 10 % soybean oil (SO), 10 % olive oil (OO), 10 % safflower oil (SFO), 10 % linseed oil (LSO) and 8 % sandalwood seed oil blended with 2 % SO (SWSO) for 8 weeks. The SWSO group had a higher total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels but lower n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios in both adipose tissue and liver than those in the SO, OO and SFO groups (p < 0.05). Although the SWSO group had a much lower 18:3n-3 level (4.51 %) in their dietary lipids than the LSO group (58.88 %), the levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: 22:6n-3) in liver lipids and phospholipids of the SWSO group (7.52 and 11.77 %) were comparable to those of the LSO group (7.07 and 13.16 %). Ximenynic acid, a predominant acetylenic FA in sandalwood seed oil, was found to be highly incorporated into adipose tissue (13.73 %), but relatively lower in liver (0.51 %) in the SWSO group. The levels of prostaglandin F, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene B4, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in both liver and plasma were positively correlated with the n-6:n-3 ratios, suggesting that increased n-6 PUFA appear to increase the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas n-3 PUFA exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. The present results suggest that sandalwood seed oil could increase tissue levels of n-3 PUFA, DHA and reduce the n-6:n-3 ratio, and may increase the anti-inflammatory activity in rats.


Fatty acid composition Inflammatory factors Sandalwood seed oil Ximenynic acid 



Arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6)


Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3)


Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3)


Fatty acid(s)




Linseed oil


Leukotriene B4


Monounsaturated fatty acid(s)


Olive oil


Prostaglandin E2


Prostaglandin F


Polyunsaturated fatty acid(s)


Saturated fatty acid(s)


Safflower oil


Soybean oil


8 % sandalwood seed oil blended with 2 % soybean oil


Tumor necrosis factor-α


Thromboxane B2


Ximenynic acid


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Copyright information

© AOCS 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guipu Li
    • 1
  • Anish Singh
    • 2
  • Yandi Liu
    • 3
  • Bruce Sunderland
    • 3
  • Duo Li
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and NutritionZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Empire ClinicPerthAustralia
  3. 3.School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research InstituteCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia

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