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Oxidative Stability of Marine Phospholipids in the Liposomal Form and Their Applications

Abstract

Marine phospholipids (MPL) have attracted a great deal of attention recently as they are considered to have a better bioavailability, a better resistance towards oxidation and a higher content of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil) from the same source. Due to their tight intermolecular packing conformation at the sn-2 position and their synergism with α-tocopherol present in MPL extracts, they can form stable liposomes which are attractive ingredients for food or feed applications. However, MPL are still susceptible to oxidation as they contain large amounts polyunsaturated fatty acids and application of MPL in food and aquaculture industries is therefore a great challenge for researchers. Hence, knowledge on the oxidative stability of MPL and the behavior of MPL in food and feed systems is an important issue. For this reason, this review was undertaken to provide the industry and academia with an overview of (1) the stability of MPL in different forms and their potential as liposomal material, and (2) the current applications and future prospects of MPL in both food and aquaculture industries with special emphasis on MPL in the liposomal form.

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Abbreviations

AA:

Arachidonic acid

BHT:

Butylated hydroxytoluene

CHO:

Cholesterol

CL:

Cardiolipin

DAG:

Diacyglycerols

DHA:

Docosahexaenoic acid

DP:

Diacetyl phosphate

EE:

Encapsulation efficiency

EFA:

Essential fatty acid

EPA:

Eicosapentaenoic acid

LA:

Linoleic Acid

LPC:

Lysophosphatidylcholine

LUV:

Large unilamellar vesicles

MLV:

Multilamellar vesicles

MPL:

Marine phospholipids

n-3 PUFA:

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid(s)

PA:

Palmitic acid

PC:

Phosphatidylcholine(s)

PE:

Phosphatidylethanolamine

PG:

Phosphatidylglycerol

PI:

Phosphatidylinositol

PL:

Phospholipid(s)

PS:

Phosphatidylserine

SA:

Stearylamine

SPM:

Sphingomyelin

TAG:

Triacyglycerols

TL:

Total lipids

NL:

Neutral lipids

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Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support from the European Regional Development Fund, Væksforum Hovedstaden through Øresund Food's 'Healthy Growth' project and also Technical University of Denmark.

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Correspondence to C. Jacobsen.

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Henna Lu, F.S., Nielsen, N.S., Timm-Heinrich, M. et al. Oxidative Stability of Marine Phospholipids in the Liposomal Form and Their Applications. Lipids 46, 3–23 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-010-3496-y

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Keywords

  • Marine phospholipids
  • Antioxidants
  • n-3 PUFA
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid
  • Docosahexaenoic acid
  • Oxidative stability
  • sn-2 Position
  • Liposome
  • Food industry
  • Aquaculture industry