, Volume 45, Issue 12, pp 1127–1138 | Cite as

Postprandial Lipemia Detects the Effect of Soy Protein on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Compared with the Fasting Lipid Profile

  • Antonio S. SantoEmail author
  • Ariana M. Santo
  • Richard W. Browne
  • Harold Burton
  • John J. Leddy
  • Steven M. Horvath
  • Peter J. Horvath
Original Article


Studies examining the effect of soy protein on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have not taken advantage of the postprandial state as an adjunct to the fasting lipid profile. The American Heart Association has acknowledged the efficacy of soy protein in reducing CVD risk factors to be limited. We hypothesized that the postprandial state would be more sensitive to any favorable changes associated with consuming soy protein compared with the fasting lipid profile. Furthermore, the presence of isoflavones in soy would enhance this effect. Thirty sedentary males aged 18–30 years were randomly assigned to milk protein (Milk), isoflavone-poor soy (Soy−), or isoflavone-rich soy (Soy+). Usual diets were supplemented with 25 g/day of protein for 28 days. Serum samples were collected before and after supplementation in a fasted state and postprandially at 30, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min after a high-fat, 1,000 kcal shake. Triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, apolipoproteins B-100 and A-I and glucose concentrations were quantified. Fasting concentrations were not different after any protein supplementation. Postprandial TAG and TAG AUC increased after Soy-consumption supporting the postprandial state as a more sensitive indicator of soy ingestion effects on CVD risk factors compared with the fasting lipid profile. Furthermore, the absence of isoflavones in soy protein may have deleterious consequences on purported cardio-protective effects.


Phytoestrogens Isoflavones Isoflavone-rich soy Soy protein Milk protein Postprandial metabolism Postprandial lipemia Hypertriacylglycerolemia Cardiovascular disease risk Triglycerides Lipid profile 



Cardiovascular disease


Milk protein


Isoflavone-poor soy


Isoflavone-rich soy


Total cholesterol



Apo B-100

Apolipoprotein B-100

Apo A-I

Apolipoprotein A-I


Food and Drug Administration


Very-low density lipoprotein


Area under the curve


Body mass index


High density lipoprotein cholesterol constituent


Non-esterified fatty acids


Analysis of variance


Low density lipoprotein cholesterol constituent


Remnant-like particle-cholesterol


Triacylglycerol rich lipoprotein


Low density lipoprotein


High density lipoprotein


Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase



The authors would like to thank The Solae Company (St. Louis, MO, USA) for donating the protein supplements used in this study. Special gratitude is warranted to our colleagues Amy Miracle and Jack Young for their input in the final review of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© AOCS 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio S. Santo
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ariana M. Santo
    • 3
  • Richard W. Browne
    • 4
  • Harold Burton
    • 5
  • John J. Leddy
    • 6
  • Steven M. Horvath
    • 7
  • Peter J. Horvath
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition SciencesUniversity of Nevada, Las Vegas School of Allied Health SciencesLas VegasUSA
  2. 2.Department of Exercise and Nutrition SciencesState University of New York at BuffaloBuffaloUSA
  3. 3.The Center for Diabetes Self-Management CareFrye Regional Medical CenterHickoryUSA
  4. 4.Biotechnical and Clinical Laboratory SciencesUniversity at Buffalo, State University of New YorkBuffaloUSA
  5. 5.Department of Exercise and Nutrition SciencesUniversity at Buffalo, State University of New YorkBuffaloUSA
  6. 6.Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Sports Medicine InstituteUniversity at Buffalo, State University of New YorkBuffaloUSA
  7. 7.Department of Exercise and Nutrition SciencesUniversity at Buffalo, State University of New YorkBuffaloUSA
  8. 8.Department of Exercise and Nutrition SciencesUniversity at Buffalo, State University of New YorkBuffaloUSA

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