Dietary n-3 HUFA Affects Mitochondrial Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Capacity and Susceptibility to Oxidative Stress in Atlantic Salmon

Abstract

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (90 g) were fed four different diets for 21 weeks (final weight 344 g). The levels of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) ranged from 11% of the total fatty acids (FA) in the low n-3 diet to 21% in the intermediate n-3 diet, to 55 and 58% in the high n-3 diets. The high n-3 diets were enriched with either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Increasing dietary levels of n-3 HUFA led to increasing percentages (from 31 to 52%) of these FA in liver lipids. The group fed the highest level of DHA had higher expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β and the FA β-oxidation genes acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-II, compared to the low n-3 groups. The high n-3 groups had reduced activity of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and β-oxidation capacity, together with increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and caspase-3 activities. In the group fed the highest level of n-3 HUFA, decreased percentages of major phospholipids (PL) in the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes of the liver were also apparent. The percentage of mitochondrial cardiolipin (Ptd2Gro) was 3.1 in the highest n-3 group compared to 6.6 in the intermediate group. These data clearly show an increased incidence of oxidative stress in the liver of fish fed the high n-3 diets.

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Abbreviations

ACO:

Acyl-CoA oxidase

BSA:

Bovine serum albumin

CoA:

Coenzyme A

CPT:

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase

DHA:

Docosahexaenoic acid

DTT:

Dithiothreitol

EDTA:

Ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid

EF1-αβ :

Elongation factor 1-α beta isoform

EGTA:

Ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid

EPA:

Eicosapentanoic acid

FA:

Fatty acid

FAD:

Flavin adenine dinucleotide

FBS:

Fetal bovine serum

FO:

Fish oil

HPTLC:

High-performance thin-layer chromatography

HUFA:

Highly unsaturated fatty acid

L-15:

Leibowitz-15 medium

NAD:

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

PBS:

Phosphate-buffered saline

PL:

Phospholipid

PPAR:

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

PtdCho:

Phosphatidyl-choline

PtdEtn:

Phosphatidyl-ethanolamine

Ptd2Gro:

Cardiolipin

PtdIns:

Phosphatidyl-inositol

RO:

Rapeseed oil

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

SOD:

Superoxide dismutase

TAG:

Triacylglycerol

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Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Inger Ø. Kristiansen and Målfrid T. Bjerke (Nofima) for skillful technical assistance. This work was carried out with support from the Norwegian Research Council.

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Correspondence to M. A. Kjær.

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Kjær, M.A., Todorčević, M., Torstensen, B.E. et al. Dietary n-3 HUFA Affects Mitochondrial Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Capacity and Susceptibility to Oxidative Stress in Atlantic Salmon. Lipids 43, 813–827 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-008-3208-z

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Keywords

  • Lipid metabolism
  • Lipid peroxidation
  • Gene expression
  • Fish oil
  • n-3 fatty acids
  • n-6 fatty acids