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Lipids

, Volume 43, Issue 9, pp 813–827 | Cite as

Dietary n-3 HUFA Affects Mitochondrial Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Capacity and Susceptibility to Oxidative Stress in Atlantic Salmon

  • M. A. KjærEmail author
  • M. Todorčević
  • B. E. Torstensen
  • A. Vegusdal
  • B. Ruyter
Original Article

Abstract

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (90 g) were fed four different diets for 21 weeks (final weight 344 g). The levels of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) ranged from 11% of the total fatty acids (FA) in the low n-3 diet to 21% in the intermediate n-3 diet, to 55 and 58% in the high n-3 diets. The high n-3 diets were enriched with either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Increasing dietary levels of n-3 HUFA led to increasing percentages (from 31 to 52%) of these FA in liver lipids. The group fed the highest level of DHA had higher expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β and the FA β-oxidation genes acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-II, compared to the low n-3 groups. The high n-3 groups had reduced activity of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and β-oxidation capacity, together with increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and caspase-3 activities. In the group fed the highest level of n-3 HUFA, decreased percentages of major phospholipids (PL) in the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes of the liver were also apparent. The percentage of mitochondrial cardiolipin (Ptd2Gro) was 3.1 in the highest n-3 group compared to 6.6 in the intermediate group. These data clearly show an increased incidence of oxidative stress in the liver of fish fed the high n-3 diets.

Keywords

Lipid metabolism Lipid peroxidation Gene expression Fish oil n-3 fatty acids n-6 fatty acids 

Abbreviations

ACO

Acyl-CoA oxidase

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

CoA

Coenzyme A

CPT

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

DTT

Dithiothreitol

EDTA

Ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid

EF1-αβ

Elongation factor 1-α beta isoform

EGTA

Ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid

EPA

Eicosapentanoic acid

FA

Fatty acid

FAD

Flavin adenine dinucleotide

FBS

Fetal bovine serum

FO

Fish oil

HPTLC

High-performance thin-layer chromatography

HUFA

Highly unsaturated fatty acid

L-15

Leibowitz-15 medium

NAD

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

PBS

Phosphate-buffered saline

PL

Phospholipid

PPAR

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

PtdCho

Phosphatidyl-choline

PtdEtn

Phosphatidyl-ethanolamine

Ptd2Gro

Cardiolipin

PtdIns

Phosphatidyl-inositol

RO

Rapeseed oil

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TAG

Triacylglycerol

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Inger Ø. Kristiansen and Målfrid T. Bjerke (Nofima) for skillful technical assistance. This work was carried out with support from the Norwegian Research Council.

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Copyright information

© AOCS 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Kjær
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • M. Todorčević
    • 1
    • 2
  • B. E. Torstensen
    • 3
  • A. Vegusdal
    • 1
  • B. Ruyter
    • 1
  1. 1.NofimaÅsNorway
  2. 2.Department of Animal and Aquacultural SciencesNorwegian University of Life SciencesÅsNorway
  3. 3.NIFES, National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood ResearchBergenNorway

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