, 43:741 | Cite as

Anti-Tumor Effect of Orally Administered Spinach Glycolipid Fraction on Implanted Cancer Cells, Colon-26, in Mice

  • Naoki Maeda
  • Yasuo Kokai
  • Seiji Ohtani
  • Hiroeki Sahara
  • Yuko Kumamoto-Yonezawa
  • Isoko Kuriyama
  • Takahiko Hada
  • Noriyuki Sato
  • Hiromi Yoshida
  • Yoshiyuki MizushinaEmail author
Original Article


We succeeded in purifying a major glycolipid fraction from a green vegetable, spinach. This fraction consists mainly of three glycolipids: monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyl diacylglycerol (DGDG), and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG). In a previous study, we found that the glycolipid fraction inhibited DNA polymerase activity, cancer cell growth and tumor growth with subcutaneous injection. We aimed to clarify oral administration of the glycolipid fraction, suppressing colon adenocarcinoma (colon-26) tumor growth in mice. A tumor graft study showed that oral administration of 20 mg/kg glycolipid fraction for 2 weeks induced a 56.1% decrease in the solid tumor volume (P < 0.05) without any side-effects, such as loss of body weight or major organ failure, in mice. The glycolipid fraction induced the suppression of colon-26 tumor growth with inhibition of angiogenesis and the expression of cell proliferation marker proteins such as Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and Cyclin E in the tumor tissue. These results suggest that the orally administered glycolipid fraction from spinach could suppress colon tumor growth in mice by inhibiting the activities of neovascularization and cancer cellular proliferation in tumor tissue.


Glycolipid Spinach Anti-tumor activity Anti-angiogenesis activity Anti-cancer cell growth activity 



Monogalactosyl diacylglycerol


Digalactosyl diacylglycerol


Sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol


Phosphate-buffered saline


Proliferating cell nuclear antigen


von Willebrand Factor


Microvessel density



This investigation was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows (N. M.), a Grant-in-Aid for Kobe-Gakuin University Joint Research (A) (H. Y. and Y. M.) and a “Life Science Center for Cooperative Research” Project for Private Universities: matching fund subsidy from MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), 2006–2010 (H. Y. and Y. M.). Y. M. acknowledges a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A) (No. 19680031) from MEXT, and Grant-in-Aids from the Nakashima Foundation (Japan) and the Foundation of the Oil & Fat Industry kaikan (Japan).


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Copyright information

© AOCS 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naoki Maeda
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yasuo Kokai
    • 3
  • Seiji Ohtani
    • 3
  • Hiroeki Sahara
    • 4
  • Yuko Kumamoto-Yonezawa
    • 1
  • Isoko Kuriyama
    • 1
    • 2
  • Takahiko Hada
    • 5
  • Noriyuki Sato
    • 6
  • Hiromi Yoshida
    • 1
    • 7
  • Yoshiyuki Mizushina
    • 1
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Department of Nutritional ScienceKobe-Gakuin UniversityKobeJapan
  2. 2.Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceKobe-Gakuin UniversityKobeJapan
  3. 3.Biomedical Research Center Laboratory of Biomedical EngineeringSapporo Medical University School of MedicineChuo-kuJapan
  4. 4.Marine Biomedical InstituteSapporo Medical University School of MedicineHokkaidoJapan
  5. 5.Hada Giken Co. LtdYamaguchiJapan
  6. 6.Pathology and ChemistrySapporo Medical University School of MedicineSapporoJapan
  7. 7.Cooperative Research Center of Life SciencesKobe-Gakuin UniversityKobeJapan

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