, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp 207–212 | Cite as

Lower weight gain and higher expression and blood levels of adiponectin in rats fed medium-chain TAG compared with long-chain TAG

  • Hiroyuki TakeuchiEmail author
  • Osamu Noguchi
  • Seiji Sekine
  • Aiko Kobayashi
  • Toshiaki Aoyama


Previous studies demonstrated that, compared with long-chain TAG (LCT), dietary medium-chain TAG (MCT) could improve glucose tolerance in rats and humans. It has been well established that adiponectin acts to increase insulin sensitivity. The effects of dietary MCT on adiponectin serum concentration and mRNA levels in adipose tissue were studied in rats. Male Spague-Dawley rats were feda diet containing 20% MCT or LCT for 8 wk. After 6 wk of dietary treatment, an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Rats fed the MCT diet had less body fat accumulation than those fed the LCT diet (P<0.01). The cell diameter of the perirenal adipose tissue, one of the abdominal adipose tissues, was smaller (P<0.01) in the MCT diet group. The serum adiponectin concentration was higher (P<0.01) in the MCT diet group than in the LCT diet group. The adiponectin content in the perirenal adipose tissue was higher (P<0.01) in the MCT diet group. The MCT-fed group had a higher adiponectin mRNA level in their perirenal adipose tissue (P<0.05). The increase of the plasma glucose concentration after glucose administration istration (area under the curve) was smaller (P<0.01) in the MCT diet group than in the LCT diet group. These findings suggest that dietary MCT, compared with LCT, results in a higher serum adiponectin level with trascriptional activation of the adiponectin gene in rats. We speculate that improved lucose tolerance in rats fed an MCT diet may be, at least in part, ascribed to this higher serum adiponectin level.


Diet Group Serum Adiponectin Adiponectin Gene Abdominal Adipose Tissue Serum Adiponectin Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



area under the curve


cAMP response element binding-protein binding protein


cAMP response element bindingprotein


long-chain TAG


liver receptor homolog-I


medium-chain TAG


peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ


peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-responsive element


retinoid X receptor


reverse transcription


tumor necrosis factor


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    St-Onge, M.P., and Jones, P.J. (2002) Physiological Effects of Medium-Chain Triglycerides: Potential Agents in the Prevention of Obesity, J. Nutr. 132, 329–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lavau M.M., and Hashim, S.A. (1978) Effect of Medium Chain Triglyceride on Lipogenesis and Body Fat in the Rat. J. Nutr. 108, 613–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Geliebter, A., Torbay, N., Bracco, E.F., Hashim, S.A., and Van Itallie, T.B. (1983) Overfeeding with Medium-Chain Triglyceride Diet Results in Diminished Deposition of Fat, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 37, 1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tsuji, H., Kasai, M., Takeuchi, H., Nakamura, M., Okazaki, M., and Kondo, K. (2001) Dietary Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols Suppress Accumulation of Body Fat in A double-Blind, Controlled Trial in Healthy Men and Women, J. Nutr. 131, 2853–2859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Han, J., Hamilton, J.A., Kirkland, J.L., Corkey, B.E., and Guo, W. (2003) Medium-Chain Oil Reduces Fat Mass and Down-Regulates Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Rats. Obes. Res. 11, 734–744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eckel, R.H., Hanson, A.S., Chen, A.Y., Berman, J.N., Yost, T.J., and Brass, E.P. (1992) Dietary Substitution of Medium-Chain Triglycerides Improves Insulin-Mediated, Glucose Metabolism in NIDDM Subjects, Diabetes 41, 641–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gavrila, A., Chan, J.L., Yiannakouris, N., Kontogianni, M., Miller, L.C., Orlova, C., and Mantzoros, C.S. (2003) Serum Adiponectin-Levels Are Inversely Associated with Overall and Central Fat Distribution but Are Not Directly Regulated by Acute Fasting or Leptin Administration in Humans: Cross-Sectional and Interventional Studies. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88, 4823–4831.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matsuzuwa, Y., Funahashi, T., Kihara, S., and Shimomura, I. (2004) Adiponectin and Metabolic Syndrome, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 24, 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yamauchi, T., Kamon, J., Waki, H., Terauchi, Y., Kubota, N., Hara, K., Mori, Y., Ide, T., Murakami, K., Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, N., et al. (2001) The Fat-Derived Hormone Adiponectin Reverses Insulin Resistance Associated with Both Lipoatrophy and Obesity, Nat. Med. 7, 941–946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kadowaki, T., Hara, K., Yamauchi, T., Terauchi, Y., Tobe, K., and Nagai, R. (2003) Molecular Mechanism of Insulin Resistance and Obesity, Exp. Biol. Med. 228, 1111–1117.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baba, N., Bracco, E.F., and Hashim, S.A. (1982) Enhanced Thermogenesis and Diminished Deposition of Fat in Response to Overfeeding with Diet Containing Medium Chain Triglyceride. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 35, 678–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baba, N., Bracco, E.F., and Hashim, S.A. (1987) Role of Brown Adipose Tissue in Thermogenesis Induced by Overfeeding a Diet Containing Medium Chain Triglyceride, Lipids 22, 442–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    American Institute of Nutrition (1993) AIN-93 Purified Diets for Laboratory Rodents: Final Report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc Writing Committee on the Reformulation of the AIN-76A Rodent Diet, J. Nutr. 123, 133–143.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen, Q., Chan, L.L., and Li, E.T. (2003) Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) Reduces Adiposity. Lowers Serum Insulin and Normalizes Glucose Tolerance in Rats Fed a High Fat Diet. J. Nutr. 133, 1088–1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Takeuchi, H., Matsuo, T., Tokuyama, K., Shimomura, Y., and Suzuki, M. (1995) Diet-Induced Thermogenesis Is Lower in Rats Fed a Lard Diet Than in Those Fed a High Oleic Acid Safflower Oil Diet, a Safflower Oil Diet or a Linseed Oil Diet, J. Nutr, 125, 920–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hirsch, J., and Gallian, E. (1968) Methods for the Determination of Adipose Cell Size in Man and Animals, J. Lipid Res. 9, 110–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Morin, C.L., Gayles, E.C., Podolin, D.A., Wei, Y., Xu, M., and Pagliassotti, M.J. (1998) Adipose Tissue-Derived Tumor Necrosis Factor Activity Correlates with Fat Cell Size but Not Insulin Action in Aging Rats, Endocrinology 139, 4998–5005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yamauchi, T., Kamon, J., Minokoshi, Y., Ito, Y., Waki, H., Uchida, S., Yamashita, S., Noda, M., Kita, S., Ueki, K. et al. (2002) Adiponectin Stimulates Glucose Utilization and Fatty-Acid Oxidation by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase. Nat. Med. 8, 1288–1295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maeda, N., Shimomura, I., Kishida, K., Nishizawa, H., Matsuda, M., Nagaretani, H., Furuyama, N., Kondo, H., Takahashi, M., Arita, Y., et al. (2002) Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance in Mice Lacking Adiponectin/ACRP30. Nat. Med. 8, 731–737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fruebis, J., Tsao, T.S., Javorschi, S., Ebbets-Reed, D., Erickson, M.R., Yen, F.T., Bihain, B.E., and Lodish, H.F. (2001) Proteolytic Cleavage Product of 30-kDa Adipocyte Complement-Related Protein Increases Fatty Acid Oxidation in Muscle and Causes Weight Loss in Mice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 2005–2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Berg, A.H., Combs, T.P., Du, X., Brownlee, M., and Scherer, P.E. (2001) The Adipocyte-Secreted Protein Acrp30 Enhances Hepatic Insulin Action, Nat. Med. 7, 947–953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weyer, C., Funahashi, T., Tanaka, S., Hotta, K., Matsuzawa, Y., Pratley, R.E. and Tataranni, P.A. (2001) Hypoadiponectinemia in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: Close Association with Insulin Resistance and Hyperinsulinemia. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86, 1930–1935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lindsay, R.S., Funahashi, T., Hanson, R.L., Matsuzawa, Y., Tanaka, S., Tataranni, P.A., Knowler, W.C., and Krakoff, J. (2002) Adiponectin and Development of Type 2 Diabetes in the Pima Indian Population. Lancet 360, 57–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stefan, N., Vozarova, B., Funahashi, T., Matsuzawa, Y., Weyer, C., Lindsay, R.S., Youngren, J.F., Havel, P.J., Pratley, R.E., Bogardus, C., et al. (2002) Plasma Adiponectin Concentration Is Associated with Skeletal Muscle Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Phosphorylation, and Low Plasma Concentration Precedes a Decrease in Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity in Humans. Diabetes 51, 1884–1888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Matsuzawa, Y., Shimomura, I., Kihara, S., and Funahashi, T. (2003) Importance of Adipocytokines in Obesity-Related Diseases. Horm. Res. 60, 56–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yamauchi, T., Kamon, J., Waki, H., Murakami, K., Motojima, K., Komeda, K., Ide, T., Kubota, N., Terauchi, Y., Tobe, K., et al. (2001) The Mechanisms by Which Both Heterozygous Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) Deficiency and PPARγ Agonist Improve Insulin Resistance, J. Biol. Chem. 276, 41245–41254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maeda, N., Takahashi, M., Funahashi, T., Kihara, S., Nishizawa, H., Kishida, K., Nagaretani, H., Matsuda, M., Komuro, R., Ouchi, N., et al. (2001) PPARγ Ligands Increase Expression and Plasma Concentrations of Adiponectin, an Adipose-Derived Protein, Diabetes 50, 2094–2099.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Desvergne, B., and Wahli, W. (1999) Peroxisome Prolife rator-Activated Receptors: Nuclear Control of Metabolism, Endocr. Rev., 20, 649–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Seaton, T.B., Welle, S.L., Warenko, M.K., and Campbell, R.G. (1986) Thermic Effect of Medium-Chain and Long-Chain Triglycerides in Man, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 44, 630–634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Noguchi, O., Takeuchi, H., Kubota, F., Tsuji, H., and Aoyama, T. (2002) Larger Diet-Induced Thermogenesis and Less Body Fat Accumulation in Rats Fed Medium-Chain Triacylgly cerols Than in Those Fed Long-Chain Triacylglycerols, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo) 48, 524–529.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rothwell, N.J., Stock, M.J., and Warwick, B.P. (1983) The Effect of High Fat and High Carbohydrate Cafeteria Diets on Diet-Induced Thermogenesis in the Rat, Int. J. Obes. 7, 263–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Landsberg, L., Saville, M.E., and Young, J.B. (1984) Sympathoadrenal System and Regulation of Thermogenesis, Am. J. Physiol. 244, E181-E189.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hashim, S.A., and Tantibhedyangkul, P. (1987) Medium Chain Triglyceride in Early Life: Effects on Growth of Adipose Tissue, Lipids 22, 429–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lovejoy, J.C. (1999) Dietary Fatty Acids and Insulin Resistance, Curr. Atheroscler. Rep. 1, 215–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rivellese, A.A., De Natale, C., and Lilli, S. (2002) Type of Dietary Fat and Insulin Resistance. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 967, 329–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhang, B., Berger, J., Hu, E., Szalkowski, D., White-Carrington, S., Spiegelman, B.M., and Moller, D.E. (1996) Negative Regulation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Gene Expression Contributes to the Antiadipogenic Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Mol. Endocrinol. 10, 1457–1466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Staiger, H., Tschritter, O., Machann, J., Thamer, C., Fritsche, A., Maerker, E., Schick, F., Haring, H.-U., and Stumvoll, M. (2003) Relationship of Serum Adioponectin and Leptin Concentrations with Body Fat Distribution in Humans, Obes. Res. 11, 368–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroyuki Takeuchi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Osamu Noguchi
    • 1
  • Seiji Sekine
    • 1
  • Aiko Kobayashi
    • 1
  • Toshiaki Aoyama
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Healthcare Science. Research LaboratoryNisshin Oillio Group IKanagawaJapan

Personalised recommendations