Skip to main content

Maternal dietary conjugated linoleic acid alters hepatic triacylglycerol and tissue fatty acids in hatched chicks


The effects of feeding CLA to hens on newly hatched chick hepatic and carcass lipid content, liver TAG accumulation, and FA incorporation in chick tissues such as liver, heart, brain, and adipose were studied. These tissues were selected owing to their respective roles in lipid assimilation (liver), as a major oxidation site (heart), as a site enriched with long-chain polyunsaturates for function (brain), and as a storage depot (adipose). Eggs with no, low, or high levels of CLA were produced by feeding hens a corn-soybean meal-basal diet containing 3% (w/w) corn oil (Control), 2.5% corn oil +0.5% CLA oil (CLA1), or 2% corn oil +1.0% CLA oil (CLA2). The egg yolk content of total CLA was 0.0, 1.0, and 2.6% for Control, CLA1, and CLA2, respectively (P<0.05). Maternal dietary CLA resulted in a decrease in chick carcass total fat (P<0.05). Liver tissue of CLA2 chicks had the lowest fat content (P<0.05). The liver TAG content was 8.2, 5.8, and 5.1 mg/g for Control, CLA1, and CLA2 chicks, respectively (P<0.05). The chicks hatched from CLA1 and CLA2 incorporated higher levels of cis-9,trans-11 CLA in the liver, plasma, adipose, and brain than Control (P<0.05). The content of 18∶0 was higher in the liver, plasma adipose, and brain of CLA1 and CLA2 than Control (P<0.05), but no difference was observed in the 18∶0 content of heart tissue. A significant reduction in 18∶1 was observed in the liver, plasma, adipose, heart, and brain of CLA1 and CLA2 chicks (P<0.05). DHA (22∶6n−3) was reduced in the heart and brain of CLA1 and CLA2 chicks (P<0.05). No difference was observed in carcass weight, dry matter, or ash content of chicks (P>0.05). The hatchabilities of fertile eggs were 78, 34, and 38% for Control, CLA1, and CLA2, respectively (P<0.05). The early dead chicks were higher in CLA1 and CLA2 than Control (18 and 32% compared with 9% for Control), and alive but not hatched chicks were 15 and 19% for CLA1 and CLA2, compared with 8% for Control (P<0.05). Maternal supplementation with CLA leads to a reduction in hatchability, liver TAG, and carcass total fat in newly hatched chicks.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.



cis 9,trans 11 CLA


c12, trans-10,cis-12


monounsaturated FA


stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1


saturated FA


  1. 1.

    Pariza, M.W., Park, Y., and Cook, M.E. (2001) The Biologically Active Isomers of Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Prog. Lipid Res. 4, 283–298.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    DeLany, J.P., Blohm, P., Truett, A.A., Scimeca, J.A., and West, D.B. (1999) Conjugated Linoleic Acid Rapidly Reduces Body Fat Content in Mice Without Affecting Energy Intake, Am. J. Physiol. 276, R1172-R1179.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Belury, M.M., and Kempa-Stezko, A. (1997) Conjugated Linoleic Acid Modulates Hepatic Lipid Composition in Mice, Lipids 32, 199–204.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Belury, M.A. (2002) Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Health: Physiological Effects and Mechanisms of Action, Annu Rev. Nutr. 22, 505–531.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Belury, M.A. (2002) Inhibition of Carcinogenesis by Conjugated Linoleic Acids: Potential Mechanisms of Action, J. Nutr. 13, 2995–2998.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Ip, C., Banni, S., Angioni, E., Carta, G., McGinley, J., Thompson, H.J., Barbano, D., and Bauman, D. (1999) Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Enriched Butterfat Alters Mammary Gland Morphogenesis and Reduces Cancer Risk in Rats, J. Nutr. 12, 2135–2142.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Mir, P.S., McAllister, T.A., Scott, S., Aalhus, J.L., Baron, V., McCartney, D., Charmley, E., Goonewardene, L., Basarab, J., Okine, E., et al. (2004) COnjugated Linoleic Acid-Enriched Beef Production, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79(6), 1207S-1211S.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Dugan, M.E.R., Alhus, J.L., and Kramer, J.K.G. (2004) Conjugated Linoleic Acid Pork Research, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79(6), 1212S-1216S.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Cherian, G. (2002) Lipid Modification Strategies and Nutritionally Functional Poultry Foods. Food Science and Product Technology. Ch 4. In Food Science and Product Technology (Nakano, T., and Ozimek, L., eds.) pp. 77–72, Research Sign Post, India.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Du, M., Ahn, D.U., and Sell, J.L. (1999) Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid on the Composition of Egg Yolk Lipids, Poultry Sci 7, 1639–1645.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Cherian, G., Holsonbake, T.B., Goeger, M.P., and Bildfell, R. (2002) Dietary CLA Alters Yolk and Tissue FA Composition and Hepatic Histopathology of Laying Hens, Lipids 37(8), 751–757.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Noble, R.C., and Cocchi, M. (1990) Lipid Metabolism in the Neonatal Chicken, Prog. Lipid Res. 29, 107–140.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Cherian, G., Gopalakrishnan, N., Akiba, Y., and Sim, J.S. (1997) Effects of Maternal Dietary 18∶3 n−3 Acids on the Accretion of Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Tissue of Developing Chick Embryo, Biol. Neonate 72, 165–174.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Salem, N., Litman, B., Kim, H.Y., and Gawrisch, K. (2001) Mechanisms of Action of Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Nervous System, Lipids 36, 945–959.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Aydin, R., Pariza, M.W., and Cook, M.E. (2001) Olive Oil Prevents the Adverse Effects of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Chick Hatchability and Egg Quality, J. Nutr. 13, 800–806.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Latour, M.A., Devitt, A.A., Meunier, R.A., Stewart, J.J., and Watkins, B.A. (2000) Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid. 1. Fatty Acid Modification of Yolks and Neonatal Fatty Acid Metabolism, Poultry Sci 78, 817–821.

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1980) Official Methods of Analysis, 13th edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Folch, J., Lees, M., and Sloane-Stanley, G.H. (1957) A Simple Method for the Isolation and Purification of Total Lipids from Animal Tissues, J. Biol. Chem. 226, 497–507.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Cherian, G., and Goeger, M.P. (2004) Hepatic Lipid Characteristics and Histopathology of Laying Hens Fed CLA or n−3 Fatty Acids, Lipids 39, 31–36.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    SAS Institute (2001) SAS User's Guide. Statistics, Release 8.2 SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Steel, R.G.D., and Torrie, J.H. (1980) Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach, 2nd edn., McGraw-Hill, Toronto.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Sessler, A.M., and Ntambi, J.M. (1998) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation of Gene Expression, J. Nutr. 128, 923–926.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Degrace, P., Demizieux, L., Gresti, J., Chardigny, J.M., Sébédio, J.L., and Clouet, P. (2004) Hepatic Steatosis Is Not Due to Impaired Fatty Acid Oxidation Capacities in C57BL/6J Mice Fed the Conjugated trans-10,cis-12-Isomer of Linoleic Acid, J. Nutr. 134, 861–867.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Lazier, C.B., Wiktorowicz, M., DiMattia, G.E., Gordon, G.A., Binder, R., and Williams, D.L. (1994) Apolipoprotein (apo)B and Apo II Gene Expression Are Both Estrogen-Responsive in Chick Embryo Liver but Only Apo II Is Estrogen-Responsive in Kidney, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 106, 187–194.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Cherian, G., and J.S. Sim. (2001) Maternal Dietary, α-Linolenic Acid (18∶3n−3) Alters n−3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolism and Liver Enzyme Activity in Hatched Chicks, Poult. Sci. 80, 901–905.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Nakanishi, T., Koutoku, T., Kawahara, S., Murai, A., Furuse, M., Nakanishi, T., Koutoku, T., Kawahara, S., Murai, A., and Furuse, M. (2003) Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Cerebral Prostaglandin E(2) in Mice, Neurosci. Lett. 1 341(2), 135–138.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Du, M., and Ahn, D.U. (2002) Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acids on the Growth Rate of Live Birds and on the Abdominal Fat Content and Quality of Broiler Meat, Poult. Sci 81, 428–433.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gita Cherian.

About this article

Cite this article

Cherian, G., Ai, W. & Goeger, M.P. Maternal dietary conjugated linoleic acid alters hepatic triacylglycerol and tissue fatty acids in hatched chicks. Lipids 40, 131–136 (2005).

Download citation


  • Carcass Weight
  • Dietary Conjugate Linoleic Acid
  • Control Chick
  • Hepatic Total Lipid
  • Chick Tissue