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Formation of genotoxic dicarbonyl compounds in dietary oils upon oxidation

Abstract

Dietary oils—tuna, salmon, cod liver, soybean, olive, and corn oils—were treated with accelerated storage conditions (60°C for 3 and 7 d) and a cooking condition (200°C for 1 h). Genotoxic malonaldehyde (MA), glyoxal, and methylglyoxal formed in the oils were analyzed by GC. Salmon oil produced the greatest amount of MA (1070±77.0 ppm of oil) when it was heated at 60°C for 7 d. The highest formation of glyoxal was obtained from salmon oil heated at 60°C for 3 d. More glyoxal was found from salmon and cod liver oils when they were heated for 3 d (12.8±1.10 and 7.07±0.19 ppm, respectively) than for 7d (6.70±0.08 and 5.94±0.38 ppm, respectively), suggesting that glyoxal underwent secondary reactions during a prolonged time. The amount of methyglyoxal formed ranged from 2.03±0.13 (cod liver oil) to 2.89±0.11 ppm (tuna oil) in the fish oils heated at 60°C for 7 d. Among vegetable oils, only olive oil yielded methylglyoxal (0.61±0.03 ppm) under accelerated storage conditions. When oils were treated under cooking conditions, the aldehydes formed were comparable to those formed under accelerated storage conditions. Fish oils produced more MA, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal than did vegetable oils because the fish oils contained higher levels of long-chain PUFA, such as EPA and DHA, than did the vegetable oils. A statistically significant correlation (P<0.05) between the α-tocopherol content and the oxidation parameters was obtained from only MA and fish oils heated at 60°C for 3 d.

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Abbreviations

MA:

malonaldehyde

1-MP:

1-methylpyrazole

NPD:

nitrogen phosphorus detector

ROS:

reactive oxygen species

SPE:

solid-phase extraction

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Correspondence to Takayuki Shibamoto.

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Fujioka, K., Shibamoto, T. Formation of genotoxic dicarbonyl compounds in dietary oils upon oxidation. Lipids 39, 481 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-004-1254-y

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-004-1254-y

Keywords

  • Methylglyoxal
  • Glyoxal
  • Quinoxaline
  • Sodium Thiosulfate Solution
  • Nitrogen Phosphorus Detector