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Lipids

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 293–309 | Cite as

Isoprenoids: Remarkable diversity of form and function

  • Sarah A. Holstein
  • Raymond J. Hohl
Review

Abstract

The isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway is the source of a wide array of products. The pathway has been highly conserved throughout evolution, and isoprenoids are some of the most ancient biomolecules ever identified, playing key roles in many life forms. In this review we focus on C-10 mono-, C-15 sesqui-, and C-20 diterpenes. Evidence for interconversion between the pathway intermediates farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranly pyrophosphate and their respective metabolites is examined. The diverse functions of these molecules are discussed in detail, including their ability to regulate expression of the β-HMG-CoA reductase and Ras-related proteins. Additional topics include the mechanisms underlying the apoptotic effects of select isoprenoids, antiulcer activities, and the disposition and degradation of isoprenoids in the environment. Finally, the significance of pharmacological manipulation of the isoprenoid pathway and clinical correlations are discussed.

Keywords

Lovastatin Monoterpene Farnesol Isoprenoid Biosynthesis Mevalonate Kinase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

CPT

cholinephosphotransferase

DMAPP

dimethylallyl pyrophosphate

DOXP

deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate

DXPS

deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase

FOH

farnesol

FPP

farnesyl pyrophosphate

FPPase

farnesyl pyrophosphatase

FPTase

farnesyl protein transferase

FXR

farnesoid X receptor

GGA

geranylgeranylacetone

GGOH

geranylgeraniol

GGPP

geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate

GGPTase

geranylgeranyl protein transferase

GOH

geraniol

GPP

geranyl pyrophosphate

HIDS

hyper-IgD and periodic fever syndrome

HMGR

HMG-CoA reductase

IDS

isoprenyl diphosphate synthases

IPP

isopentenyl pyrophosphate

JH

juvenile hormone

LXR

liver X receptor

MA

mevalonic aciduria

MK

mevalonate kinase

PKC

protein kinase C

PPAR

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

RAR

retinoic acid receptor

ROS

reactive oxygen species

RXR

retinoid X receptor

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© AOCS Press 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, C32 GHUniversity of IowaIowa City

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