The uniqueness of ruminant milk lipids is based on their high concentration of CLA. Maximal CLA concentrations in milk lipids require optimal conditions of ruminal fermentation and substrate availability, conditions like those present in pasture-fed cows. Our previous work showed that farm management (indoor feeding vs. pasture feeding) markedly influenced the CLA concentration. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the influence of the farm management system as dependent on different locations. Milk samples from different locations (Thuringia and the Alps, representing diverse altitudes) were collected during the summer months and analyzed for FA profile and CLA isomer distribution. The proportion of PUFA and total CLA in milk fat was significantly lower in milk from indoor cows compared with the pasture cows in the Alps. The trans-11 18∶1 in milk fat of Alpine cows was elevated, in contrast to lower values for trans-10 18∶1. Milk from cows grazing pasture in the Alps was higher in EPA and lower in arachidonic acid than milk from indoor-fed cows. The proportion of cis,trans/trans,cis isomers of CLA was 10 times higher from the indoor cows than from the Alpine cows. In addition to the major isomer cis-9,trans-11, this difference also occurred for the trans-11,cis-13 isomer, which represented more than a fourth of the total CLA present in milk fat. This is the first report showing a special isomer distribution in the milk fat of cows living under very natural conditions. We hypothesize that the CLA isomer trans-11,cis-13 is formed in large quantity as a result of grazing mountain pasture, which is rich in α-linolenic acid.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Parodi, P.W. (1977) Conjugated Octadecadienoic Acids of Milk Fat, J. Dairy Sci. 60, 1550–1553.
Fritsche, J., Fritsche, S., Solomon, M.B., Mossoba, M.M., Yurawecz, M.P., Morehouse, K., and Ku, Y. (2000) Quantitative Determination of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers in Beef Fat, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 102, 667–672.
Viviani, R. (1970) Metabolism of Long-Chain Fatty Acids in the Rumen, Adv. Lipid Res. 8, 267–346.
Kelly, M.L., Berry, J.R., Dwyer, D.A., Griinari, J.M., Chouinard, P.Y., Van Amburgh, M.E., and Bauman, D.E. (1998) Dietary Fatty Acid Sources Affect Conjugated Linoleic Acid Concentrations in Milk from Lactating Dairy Cows, J. Nutr. 128, 881–885.
Griinari, J.M., Corl, B.A., Lacy, S.H., Chouinard, P.Y., Nurmela, K.V.V., and Bauman, D.E. (2000) Conjugated Linoleic Acid Is Synthesized Endogenously in Lactating Dairy Cows by Δ9-Desaturase, J. Nutr. 130, 2285–2291.
Corl, B.A., Baumgard, L.H., Dwyer, D.A., Griinari, J.M., Phillips, B.S., and Bauman, D.E. (2001) The Role of Δ9-Desaturase in the Production of cis-9,trans-11 CLA, J. Nutr. Biochem. 12, 622–630.
Jahreis, G., Fritsche, J., Möckel, P., Schöne, F., Möller, U., and Steinhart, H. (1999) The Potential Anticarcinogenic Conjugated Linoleic Acid, cis-9,trans-11 C18∶2, in Milk of Different Species: Cow, Goat, Ewe, Sow, Mare, Woman, Nutr. Res. 19, 1541–1549.
Jahreis, G., Fritsche, F., and Kraft, J. (1999) Species-Dependent, Seasonal, and Dietary Variation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk, in Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 1 (Yurawecz, M.P., Mossoba, M.M., Kramer, J.K.G., Pariza, M.W., and Nelson, G.J., eds.), pp. 215–225, AOCS Press, Champaign.
Peterson, D.G., Kelsey, J.A., and Bauman, D.E. (2002) Analysis of Variation in cis-9,trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in Milk Fat of Dairy Cows, J. Dairy Sci. 85, 2164–2172.
Kelsey, J.A., Corl, B.A., Collier, R.C., and Bauman, D.E. (2002) Effect of Breed, Parity and Stage of Lactation on Milk Fat Content of CLA in the Dairy Cow, J. Dairy Sci. 85 (Suppl. 1), 298–299.
Sehat, N., Kramer, J.K.G., Mossoba, M.M., Yurawecz, M.P., Roach, J.A.G., Eulitz, K., Morehouse, K.M., and Ku, Y. (1998) Identification of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers in Cheese by Gas Chromatography, Silver Ion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectral Reconstructed Ion Profiles. Comparison of Chromatographic Elution Sequences, Lipids 33, 963–971.
Yurawecz, M.P., Roach, J.A.G., Sehat, N., Mossoba, M.M., Kramer, J.K.G., Fritsche, J., Steinhart, H., and Ku, Y. (1998) A New Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomer, 7-trans,9-cis-Octadecadienoic Acid, in Cow Milk, Cheese, Beef and Human Milk and Adipose Tissue, Lipids 33, 803–809.
Fritsche, J., Rickert, R., Steinhart, H., Yurawecz, M.P., Mossoba, M.M., Sehat, N., Roach, J.A.G., Kramer, J.K.G., and Ku, Y. (1999) Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Isomers: Formation, Analysis, Amounts in Foods, and Dietary Intake, Fett-Lipid 101, 272–276.
Piperova, L.S., Sampugna, J., Teter, B.B., Kalscheur, K.F., Yurawecz, M.P., Ku, Y., Morehouse, K.M., and Erdman, R.A. (2002) Duodenal and Milk trans Octadecenoic Acid and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Isomers Indicate That Postabsorptive Synthesis Is the Predominant Source of cis-9-Containing CLA in Lactating Dairy Cows, J. Nutr. 132, 1235–1241.
Corl, B.A., Baumgard, L.H., Griinari, J.M., Delmonte, P., Morehouse, K.M., Yurawecz, M.P., and Bauman, D.E. (2002) Trans-7,cis-9 CLA Is Synthesized Endogenously by Δ (9)-Desaturase in Dairy Cows, Lipids 37, 681–688.
Piperova, L.S., Teter, B.B., Bruckental, I., Sampugna, J., Mills, S.E., Yurawecz, M.P., Fritsche, J., Ku, K., and Erdman, R.A. (2000) Mammary Lipogenic Enzyme Activity, trans Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acids Are Altered in Lactating Dairy Cows Fed a Milk Fat-Depressing Diet, J. Nutr. 130, 2568–2574.
Griinari, J.M., and Bauman, D.E. (1999) Biosynthesis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Its Incorporation into Meat and Milk in Ruminants, in Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 1 (Yurawecz, M.P., Mossoba, M.M., Kramer, J.K.G., Pariza, M.W., and Nelson, G.J., eds.), pp. 180–200, AOCS Press, Champaign.
Kraft, J., Lebzien, P., Flachowsky, G., Möckel, P., and Jahreis, G. (2000) Duodenal Infusion of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Mixture Influences Milk Fat Synthesis and Milk CLA Content in Dairy Cows, in Milk Composition. Occasional Publication No. 25, British Society of Animal Science (Agnew, R.E., Agnew, A.K. and Fearon, A.M., eds.), pp. 143–147.
Baumgard, L.H., Corl, B.A., Dwyer, D.A., Saebo, A., and Bauman, D.E. (2000) Identification of the Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomer That Inhibits Milk Fat Synthesis, Am. J. Physiol. 278, R179-R184.
Baumgard, L.H., Sangster, J.K., and Baumann, D.E. (2001) Milk Fat Synthesis in Dairy Cows Is Progressively Reduced by Increasing Supplemental Amounts of trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), J. Nutr. 131, 1764–1769.
Collomb, M., Bütikofer, U., Sieber, R., Bosset, J.O., and Jeangros, B. (2001) Conjugated Linoleic Acid and trans Fatty Acid Composition of Cow's Milk Fat Produced in Lowlands and Highlands, J. Dairy Res. 68, 519–523.
Collomb, M., Bütikofer, U., Sieber, R., Jeangros, B., and Bosset, J.O. (2002) Composition of Fatty Acids in Cow's Milk Fat in the Lowlands, Mountains and Highlands of Switzerland Using High-Resolution Gas Chromatography, Int. Dairy J. 12, 649–659.
Jeangros, B., Scehovic, J., Troxler, J., Bachmann, H.J., and Bosset, J.O. (1999) Comparaison de Caractéristiques Botaniques et Chimiques d'Herbages Pâtures en Plaine et en Montagne, Fourrages 159, 277–292.
Collomb, M., Bütikofer, U., Sieber, R., Jeangros, B., and Bosset, J.O. (2002) Correlation Between Fatty Acids in Cow's Milk Fat Produced in the Lowlands, Mountains, and Highlands of Switzerland and Botanical Composition of the Fodder, Int. Dairy J. 12, 661–666.
Folch, J., Lees, M., and Sloane-Stanley, G.H. (1957) A Simple Method for the Isolation and Purification of Total Lipids from Animal Tissues, J. Biol. Chem. 226, 497–509.
Kramer, J.K.G., and Zhou, J.Q. (2001) Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Octadecenoic Acids: Extraction and Isolation of Lipids, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 103, 594–600.
Kramer, J.K.G., Cruz-Hernandez, C., and Zhou, J.Q. (2001) Conjugated Linoleic Acids and Octadecenoic Acids: Analysis by GC, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 103, 600–609.
Kramer, J.K.G., Sehat, N., Fritsche, J., Mossoba, M.M., Eulitz, K., Yurawecz, M.P., and Ku, Y. (1999) Separation of Conjugated Fatty Acid Isomers, in Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 1 (Yurawecz, M.P., Mossoba, M.M., Kramer, J.K.G., Pariza, M.W., and Nelson, G.J., eds.), pp. 83–109, AOCS Press, Champaign.
Yurawecz, M.P., and Morehouse, K.M. (2001) Silver Ion HPLC of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 103, 609–613.
Jahreis, G., Kraft, J., Tischendorf, F., Schöne, F., and von Loeffelholz, C. (2000) Conjugated Linoleic Acids: Physiological Effects in Animal and Man with Special Regard to Body Composition, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 102, 695–703.
Jahreis, G., Fritsche, J., and Steinhart, H. (1997) Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk Fat: High Variation Depending on Production-System, Nutr. Res. 17, 1479–1484.
Loor, J.J., Herbein, J.H., and Polan, C.E. (2002) Trans 18∶1 and 18∶2 Isomers in Blood Plasma and Milk Fat of Grazing Cows Fed a Grain Supplement Containing Solvent-Extracted or Mechanically Extracted Soybean Meal, J. Dairy Sci. 85, 1197–1207.
Bauman, D.E., and Griinari, J.M. (2000) Regulation and Nutritional Manipulation of Milk Fat. Low-Fat Milk Syndrome, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 480, 209–216.
Parodi, P.W. (2001) Cow's Milk Components with Anti-cancer Potential, Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 56, 65–73.
Dhiman, T.R., Anand, G.R., Satter, L.D., and Pariza, M.W. (1999) Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content of Milk from Cows Fed Different Diets, J. Dairy Sci. 82, 2146–2156.
Hawke, J.C. (1973) Lipids, in Chemistry and Biochemistry of Herbage (Butler, G.W., and Baily, R.W., eds.) Vol. 1, pp. 213–263, Academic Press, London.
Loor, J.J., Bandara, A.B., Herbein, J.H. (2002) Characterization of 18∶1 and 18∶2 Isomers Produced During Microbial Biohydrogenation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids from Canola and Soya Bean Oil in the Rumen of Lactating Cows, J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 86, 422–432.
Chilliard, Y., Ferlay, A., Mansbridge, R.M., and Doreau, M. (2000) Ruminant Milk Fat Plasticity: Nutritional Control of Saturated, Polyunsaturated, trans and Conjugated Fatty Acids, Ann. Zootech. 49, 181–205.
Choi, Y.J., Kim, Y.C., Han, Y.B., Park, Y., Pariza, M.W., and Ntambi, J.M. (2000) The trans-10,cis-12 Isomer of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Downregulates Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 Gene Expression in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes, J. Nutr. 130, 1920–1924.
Griinari, J.M., Dwyer, D.A., McGuire, M.A., Bauman, D.E., Palmquist, D.L., and Nurmela, K.V. (1998) Trans-Octadecenoic Acids and Milk Fat Depression in Lactating Dairy Cows, J. Dairy Sci. 81, 1251–1261.
Jiang, J., Bjoerck, L., Fondén, R., and Emanuelson, M. (1996) Occurrence of Conjugated cis-9,trans-11-Octadecadienoic Acid in Bovine Milk: Effects of Feed and Dietary Regimen, J. Dairy Sci. 79, 438–445.
Enser, M., Scollan, N.D., Choi, N.J., Kurt, E., Hallett, K., and Wood, J.D. (1999) Effect of Dietary Lipid on the Content of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in Beef Muscle, Anim. Sci. 69, 143–146.
Palmquist, D.L. (2001) Ruminal and Endogenous Synthesis of CLA in Cows, Austr. J. Dairy Technol. 56, 134–137.
Morales, M.S., Palmquist, D.L., and Weiss, W.P. (2000) Effects of Fat Source and Copper on Unsaturation of Blood and Milk Triacylglycerol Fatty Acids in Holstein and Jersey Cows, J. Dairy Sci. 83, 2105–2111.
Lund, P. (1991) Characterization of Alternatively Produced Milk, Milchwissenschaft 46, 166–199.
Harfoot, C.G., and Hazelwood, G.P. (1988) Lipid Metabolism in the Rumen, in The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem (Hobson, P.N., ed.), pp. 285–322, Elsevier Science Publishers, London.
About this article
Cite this article
Kraft, J., Collomb, M., Möckel, P. et al. Differences in CLA isomer distribution of cow's milk lipids. Lipids 38, 657–664 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-003-1111-z
- Conjugate Linoleic Acid
- Conjugate Linoleic Acid Isomer
- Milk Lipid
- Conjugate Linoleic Acid Content
- Total Conjugate Linoleic Acid