, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 351–358 | Cite as

Effect of sesaminol on plasma and tissue α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol concentrations in rats fed a vitamin E concentrate rich in tocotrienols

  • Kanae YamashitaEmail author
  • Saiko Ikeda
  • Yoshie Iizuka
  • Ikuo Ikeda


We have shown that sesame lignans added to rat diet resulted in significantly greater plasma and tissue concentrations of α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in supplemented rats than in rats without supplementation. In the present studies we examined whether sesaminol, a sesame lignan, enhances tocotrienol concentrations in plasma and tissues of rats fed diets containing a tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil (T-mix). In Ex-periment 1, effects of sesaminol on tocotrienol concentrations in plasma, liver, and kidney were evaluated in rats fed diets containing 20 mg/kg of T-mix (20T) and 50 mg/kg of T-mix (50T) with or without 0.1% sesaminol. Although the T-mix contained 23% α-tocopherol, 22% α-tocotrienol, and 34% γ-tocotrienol, α-tocopherol constituted most or all of the vitamin E in plasma and tissue (from 97% in kidney to 100% in plasma), with no or very little α-tocotrienol and no γ-tocotrienol at all. Addition of sesaminol to the T-mix resulted in significantly higher plasma, liver, and kidney α-tocopherol concentrations compared to values for T-mix alone. Further, T-mix with sesaminol resulted in significantly higher α-tocotrienol concentrations in kidney, although the concentration was very low. In Experiment 2, we examined whether sesaminol caused enhanced absorption of α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol in a dosage regimen supplying T-mix and sesaminol on alternating days and observed significantly higher levels of α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol in rats fed sesaminol, even without simultaneous intake, compared to those in rats without sesaminol. In Experiment 3, α-tocopherol was supplied to the stomach with and without sesaminol, and α-tocopherol concentrations in the lymph fluid were measured, α-Tocopherol concentrations were not different between groups. These results indicated that sesaminol produced markedly higher α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and tissue and significantly greater α-tocotrienol concentrations in kidney and various other tissues, but the concentrations of α-tocotrienol were extremely low compared to those of α-tocopherol (Exps. 1 and 2). However, the sesaminol-induced increases of α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol concentrations in plasma and tissue were not caused by their enhanced absorption since sesaminol did not enhance their absorption.


Sesamin Tocotrienols Dialuric Acid Liver TBARS Sesame Lignans 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



American Institute of Nutrition


2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2 (2′-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman




tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil containing α-tocopherol






α-tocopherol transfer protein


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Yamashita, K., Nohara, Y., Katayama, K., and Namiki, M. (1992) Sesame Seed Lignans and γ-Tocopherol Act Synergistically to Produce Vitamin E Activity in Rats. J. Nutr. 122, 2440–2446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Imai, T., Iizuka, Y., Namiki, M., and Yamashita, K. (1995) Marked Increase of α-Tocopherol Concentration in Rats Fed Sesame Seed, J. Home Econ. Jpn. 46, 627–633.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yamashita, K., Iizuka, Y., Imai, T., and Namiki, M. (1995) Sesame Seed and Its Lignans Produce Marked Enhancement of Vitamin E Activity in Rats Fed a Low α-Tocopherol Diet. Lipids, 30, 1019–1028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yamashita, K., Takeda, N., and Ikeda, S. (2000) Effects of Various Tocopherol-Containing Diets on Tocopherol Secretion into Bile, Lipids 35, 163–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Theriault, A., Chao, J., Wang, Q., Gapor, A., and Adeli, K. (1999) Tocotrienol: A Review of Its Therapeutic Potential, Clin. Biochem. 32, 309–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kamat, J.P., Sarma, H.D., Devasagayam, T.P.A., Nesaretnam, K., and Basiron, Y. (1997) Tocotrienols from Palm Oil as Effective Inhibitors of Protein Oxidation and Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Liver Microsomes, Mol. Cell. Biochem. 170, 131–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McIntyre, B.S., Briski, K.P., Tirmenstein, M.A., Fariss, M.W., Gapor, A., and Sylvester, P.W. (2000) Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols on Normal Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells, Lipids 35, 171–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    American Institute of Nutrition (1977) Report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc Committee on Standards for Nutritional Studies, J. Nutr. 107, 1340–1348.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ikeda, I., Imasato, Y., Sasaki, E., and Sugano, M. (1996) Lymphatic Transport of α-, γ and δ-Tocotrienols and α-Tocopherol in Rats, Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 66, 217–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ueda, T., and Igarashi, O. (1987) New Solvent System for Extraction of Tocopherols from Biological Specimens for HPLC Determination and the Evaluation of 2,2,5,7,8-Pentamethyl-6-chromanol as an Internal Standard, J. Micronutr. Anal. 3, 185–198.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N., and Yagi K. (1979) Assay for Lipid Peroxides in Animal Tissues by Thiobarbituric Acid Reaction. Anal. Biochem. 95, 351–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mino, M., Kitagawa, M., and Nakagawa, S. (1981) Changes of α-Tocopherol Levels in Red Blood Cells and Plasma with Respect to Hemolysis Induced by Dialuric Acid in Vitamin E-Deficient Rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 27, 199–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gutmann, I., and Bernt, E. (1974) Pyruvate Kinase Assay in Serum and Erythrocytes, in Methods of Enzymatic Analysis (Bergmeyer, H.U., ed.), Vol. 2, pp., 774–778.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Duncan, D.B. (1957) Multiple Range Tests for Correlated and Heteroscedastic Means, Biometrics 13, 164–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hayes, K.C., Pronczuk, A., and Liang, J.S. (1993) Differences in the Plasma Transport and Tissue Concentrations of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols: Observations in Humans and Hamsters, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 202, 353–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mensink, R.P., Houwelingen, A.C., and Hornstra, G. (1999) A Vitamin E Concentrate Rich in Tocotrienols Had No Effect on Serum Lipids, Lipoproteins, or Platelet Function in Men with Mildly Elevated Serum Lipid Concentrations, Am. J Clin. Nutr. 69, 213–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Catignani, G.L., and Bieri, J.G. (1977) Rat Liver α-Tocopherol Binding Protein, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 497, 349–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Traber, M.G., and Kaden, H.J. (1989) Preferential Incorporation of α-Tocopherol vs. γ-Tocopherol in Human Lipoproteins. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49, 518–526.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sato, Y., Hagiwara, K., Arai, H., and Inoue K. (1991) Purification and Characterization of the α-Tocopherol Transfer Protein from Rat Liver, FEBS Lett. 288, 41–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kang, M-H., Katsuzaki, H., and Osawa, T. (1998) Inhibition of 2,2′-Azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile)-Induced Lipid Peroxidation by Sesaminol, Lipids 33, 1031–1036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kang, M.-H., Kawai, Y., Naito, M., and Osawa, T. (1999) Dietary Defatted Sesame Flour Decreases Susceptibility to Oxidative Stress in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits. J. Nutr. 129, 1885–1890.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kang, M.-H., Naito, M., Sakai, K., Uchida, K., and Osawa, T. (2000) Mode of Action of Sesame Lignans in Protecting Low-Density Lipoprotein Against Oxidative Damage in vitro. Life Sci. 66, 161–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mino, M., Nishida, Y., Murata, K., Kakegawa, M., Katsui, G., and Yuguchi, Y. (1978) Studies on the Factors Influencing the Hydrogen Peroxide Hemolysis Test. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo) 24, 383–395.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Peake, I.R., Windmueller, H.G., and Bieri, J.G. (1972) A Comparison of the Intestinal Absorption, Lymph and Plasma and Tissue Uptake of Alpha and Gamma Tocopherols in the Rat, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 260, 679–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Traber, M.G., Kayden, H.J., Green, J.B., and Green, M.H. (1986) Absorption of Water-Miscible Forms of Vitamin E in a Patient with Cholestasis and in Thoracic Duct-Cannulated Rats, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 44, 914–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Traber, M.G., Burton, G.W., Hughes, L., Ingold, K.U., Hidaka, H., Malloy, M., Kane, J., Hyams, J., and Kayden, H. (1992) Discrimination Between Forms of Vitamin E by Humans With and Without Genetic Abnormalities of Lipoprotein Metabolism. J. Lipid Res. 33, 1171–1182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hirose, N., Inoue, T., Sugano M., Akimoto, K., Shimizu, S., and Yamada, H. (1991) Inhibition of Cholesterol Absorption and Synthesis in Rats by Sesamin. J. Lipid Res. 32, 629–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Podda, M., Weber, C., Traber, M.G., and Packer, L. (1996) Simultaneous Determination of Tissue Tocopherols, Tocotrienols, Ubiquinols, and Ubiquinones, J Lipid Res. 37, 893–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ikeda, S., Niwa, T., and Yamashita, K. (2000) Selective Uptake of Dietary Tocotrienols into Rat Skin. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo) 46, 141–143.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ikeda, S., Toyoshima, K., and Yamashita, K. (2001) Dietary Sesame Seeds Elevate α- and γ-Tocotrienol Concentrations in Skin and Adipose Tissue of Rats Fed Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Extracted from Palm Oil. J. Nutr. 131, 2892–2897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Parker, R.S., Sontag, T.J., and Swanson, J.E. (2000) Cytochrome P4503A-Dependent Metabolism of Tocopherols and Inhibition by Sesamin. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 277, 531–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kanae Yamashita
    • 2
    Email author
  • Saiko Ikeda
    • 2
  • Yoshie Iizuka
    • 2
  • Ikuo Ikeda
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Nutrition Chemistry, Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of AgricultureGraduate School Kyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Dept. of Food and Nutrition, School of Life StudiesSugiyama Jogakuen UniversityNagoyaJapan

Personalised recommendations