, Volume 36, Issue 12, pp 1289–1305 | Cite as

Factors affecting the storage and excretion of toxic lipophilic xenobiotics



Lipophilic toxins have been introduced into the environment both as functional compounds, such as pesticides, and as industrial waste from incineration or the manufacture of electrical transformer components. Among these substances are compounds that are carcinogenic and that affect the endocrine system. Accidental high exposures of humans to some lipophilic toxins have produced overt disease symptoms including chloracne and altered liver function. These toxic materials have been the recent focus of international effort to reduce or eliminate classes of halogenated hydrocarbons from the environment. Evidence of the widespread distribution of lipophilic toxins in the biosphere has been obtained by analyses of human tissues and human milk. The principal route of entry of lipophilic toxins into humans is through the food chain, and most of them are stored in adipose tissue. A common route of excretion is in bile, but there is also evidence of nonbiliary excretion into the intestine. Enterohepatic circulation of many of these compounds slows their removal from the body. Substances that interrupt the enterohepatic circulation of compounds that enter the intestine by the biliary and nonbiliary routes increase the rate of their removal from the body and reduce their storage half-lives. Reduction in body fat, along with these dietary substances that interrupt enterohepatic circulation, further enhances the excretion rate. Areas for further research include optimizing regimens for body burden reductions, understanding the nature of nonbiliary excretion, and following the effects of tissue redistribution during loss of body fat.









polybrominated biphenyl


polychlorinated biphenyl


persistent organic pollutant


sucrose polyester




Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Jensen, A.A. (1983) Chemical Contaminants in Human Milk, Residue Rev. 89, 1–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hofvander, Y., Hagman, U., Linder, C.E., Vaz, R., and Slorach, S.A. (1981) WHO Collaborative Breast Feeding Study. I. Organochlorine Contaminants in Individual Samples of Swedish Human Milk, 1978–1979, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 70, 3–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tryphonas, H. (1998) The Impact of PCBs and Dioxins on Children’s Health: Immunological Considerations, Can. J. Public Health 89 (Suppl. 1), S49-S52; S54–S57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weisenberg, E. (1986) Hexachlorobenzene in Human Milk: A Polyhalogenated Risk, IARC Sci. Publ. 77, 193–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wolff, M.S., Fischbein, A., and Selikoff, I.J. (1992) Changes in PCB Serum Concentrations Among Capacitor Manufacturing Workers, Environ. Res. 59, 202–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kalantzi, O.I., Alcock, R.E., Johnston P.A., Santillo, D., Stringer, R.L., Thomas, G.O., and Jones, K.C. (2001) The Global Distribution of PCBs and Organochlorine Pesticides in Butter, Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 1013–1018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schepens, P.J., Covaci, A., Jorens, P.G., Hens, L., Scharpe, S., and Van Larebeke, N. (2001) Surprising Findings Following a Belgian Food Contamination with Polychlorobiphenyls and Dioxins, Environ. Health Perspect. 109, 101–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dewailly, E., Mulvad, G., Pedersen, H.S., Ayotte, P.L.J., Demers, A., Weber, J.P., and Hansen, J.C. (1999) Concentration of Organochlorines in Human Brain, Liver, and Adipose Tissue Samples from Greenland, Environ. Health Perspect. 107, 823–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kelly, B.C., and Gobas, F.A. (2001) Bioaccumulation of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Lichen-Caribou-Wolf Food Chains of Canada’s Central and Western Arctic, Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 325–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wolff, M.S., Anderson, H.A., and Selikoff, I.J. (1982) Human Tissue Burdens of Halogenated Aromatic Chemicals in Michigan, JAMA 16, 2112–2116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bernard, A. (2000) Food Contamination by PCBs/Dioxins in Belgium: Analysis of an Accident with Improbable Health Consequences, Bull. Mem. Acad. R. Med. Belg. 155, 195–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Masuda, Y., Kuroki, H., Haraguchi, K., and Nagayama, J. (1985) PCB and PCDF Congeners in the Blood and Tissues of Yosho and Yu-Cheng Patients, Environ. Health Perspect. 59, 53–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen, P.H., Luo, M.L., Wong C.K., and Chen, C.J. (1982) Comparative Rates of Elimination of Some Individual Polychlorinated Biphenyls from the Blood of PCB-Poisoned Patients in Taiwan, Food Chem. Toxicol. 20, 417–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Perera, F. (1981) Carcinogenicity of Airborne Fine Particulate Benzo(a)Pyrene: An Appraisal of the Evidence and the Need for Control, Environ. Health Perspect 42, 163–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ernst, P., and Theriault, G. (1984) Known Occupational Carcinogens and Their Significance, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 130, 868–867.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Conway, J.G., Tomaszewski, K.E., Olson, M.J., Cattley, R.C., Marsman, D.S., and Popp, J.A. (1989) Relationship of Oxidative Damage to Hepatocarcinogenicity of the Peroxisome Proliferators Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and Wy 14,643, Carcinogenesis 10, 513–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Doull, J., Cattley, R., Elcombe, C., Lake, B.G., Swenberg, J., Wilkinson, C., Williams, G., and Van Gemert, M. (1999) A Cancer Risk Assessment of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate: Application of the New U.S. EPA Risk Assessment Guidelines, Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 29, 327–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Huber, W.W., Grasl-Kraupp, B., and Schulte-Hermann, R. (1996) Hepatocarcinogenic Potential of Di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate in Rodents and Its Implications on Human Risk, Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 26, 365–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Latini, G. (2000) Potential Hazards of Exposure to Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in Babies, a Review, Biol. Neonate 78, 269–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, 9th Report on Carcinogens, Revised January 2001, Environmental Health Information Service.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fitzhugh, O.G., and Nelson, A.A. (1946) The Chronic Oral Toxicity of DDT (2,2-bis p-chlorophenyl-1,1,1-trichloroethane), J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 89, 18–30.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mukerjee, D. (1998) Health Impacts of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins: A Critical Review, J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 48, 157–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kishima, M.O., Barbisan, L.F., Estevao, D., Rodrigues, M.A., and Vianna De Camargo, J.L. (2000) Promotion of Hepatocarcinogenesis by Hexachlorobenzene in Energy-Restricted Rats, Cancer Lett. 152, 37–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shoket, B. (1999) DNA Damage in Humans Exposed to Environmental and Dietary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Mutat. Res. 424, 143–153.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ernst, P., and Theriault, G. (1984) Known Occupational Carcinogens and Their Significance, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 130, 868–867.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Boffetta, P., Jourenkova, N., and Gustavsson, P. (1997) Cancer Risk from Occupational and Environmental Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Cancer Causes Control 8, 444–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Snedeker, S.M. (2001) Pesticides and Breast Cancer Risk: A Review of DDT, DDE, and Dieldrin, Environ. Health Perspect. 109 (Suppl. 1), 35–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Safe, S.H. (2000) Endoerine Disruptors and Human Health—Is There a Problem? An Update, Environ. Health Perspect. 108, 487–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lakshmanan, M.R., Campbell, B.S., Chirtel, S.J., Ekarohita, N., and Ezekiel, M. (1986) Studies on the Mechanism of Absorption and Distribution of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the Rat, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 239, 673–677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pocock, D.E., and Vost, A. (1974) DDT Absorption and Chylomicron Transport in Rat, Lipids 9, 374–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sieber, S.M. (1976) The Lymphocytic Absorption of p,p′-DDT and Some Structurally Related Compounds in Rat, Pharmacology 14, 443–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vost, A., and Maclean, N. (1984) Hydrocarbon Transport in Chylomicrons and High-Density Lipoproteins in Rat, Lipids 19, 423–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Busbee, D.L., Yoo, J.S., Norman, J.O., and Joe, C.O. (1985) Polychlorinated Biphenyl Uptake and Transport by Lymph and Plasma Components, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 179, 116–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nakashima, Y., Ohsawa, S., and Ikegami, S. (1999) High-Fat Diet Enhances Accumulation of Hexachlorobenzene in Rat Dams and Delays Its Transfer from Rat Dams to Suckling Pups Through Milk, J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 1587–1592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Laher, J.M., Rigler, M.W., Vetter, R.D., Barrowman, J.A., and Patton, J.S. (1984) Similar Bioavailability and Lymphatic Transport of Benzo(α)pyrene When Administered to Rats in Different Amounts of Dietary Fat, J. Lipid Res. 25, 1337–1342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Spindler-Vomachka, M., Vodicnik, M.J., and Lech, J.J. (1984) Transport of 2,4,5,2′,4′,5′-Hexachlorobiphenyl by Lipoproteins in vivo, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 74, 70–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Busbee, D.L., and Ziprin, R.L. (1994) Gastrointestinal Uptake and Vascular Transport of 2,4′-Dichlorobiphenyl, Arch. Toxicol. 68, 96–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Van Der Molen, G.W., Kooijman, S.A., and Slob, W. (1996) A Generic Toxicokinetic Model for Persistent Lipophilic Compounds in Humans: An Application to TCDD, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 31, 83–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Van Den Berg, M., De Jongh, J., Poiger, H., and Olson, J.R. (1994) The Toxicokinetics and Metabolism of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Their Relevance for Toxicity, Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 24, 1–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Buckley, L.A. (1995) Biologically-Based Models of Dioxin Pharmacokinetics, Toxicology 102, 125–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rozman, T., Rozman, K., and Smith, G.S. (1983) Relationship of Body Weight to Disposition of Hexachlorobenzene in Rats, Toxicol. Lett. 18, 171–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Weber, L.W., Ernst, S.W., Stahl, B.U., and Rozman, K. (1993) Tissue Distribution and Toxicokinetics of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorobenzo-p-dioxin in Rats After Intravenous Injection, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 21, 523–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Birnbaum, L.S., and Couture, L.A. (1988) Disposition of Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) in Male Rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 93, 22–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Diliberto, J.J., Burgin, D.E., and Birnbaum, L.S. (1999) Effects of CYP1A2 on Disposition of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran, and 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-Hexachlorobiphenyl in CYP1A2 Knockout and Parental (C57BL/6N and 129/Sv) Strains of Mice, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 159, 52–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mes, J., Arnold, D.L., and Bryce, F. (1995) The Elimination and Estimated Half-Lives of Specific Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners from the Blood of Female Monkeys After Discontinuation of Daily Dosing with Aroclor 125, Chemosphere 30, 789–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chen, P.H., Luo, M.L., Wong, C.K., and Chen, C.J. (1982) Comparative Rates of Elimination of Some Individual Polychlorinated Biphenyls from the Blood of PCB-Poisoned Patients in Taiwan, Food Chem. Toxicol. 20, 417–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Flesch-Janys, D., Becher, H., Gurn, P., Jung, D., Konietzko, J., Manz, A., and Papke, O. (1996) Elimination of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Occupationally Exposed Persons, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health. 47, 363–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Blanck, H.M., Marcus, M., Hertzberg, V., Tolbert, P.E., Rubin, C., Henderson, A.K., and Zhang, R.H. (2000) Determinants of Polybrominated Biphenyl Serum Decay Among Women in the Michigan PBB Cohort, Environ. Health Perspect. 108, 147–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ramesh, A., Inyang, F., Hood, D.B., and Knuckles, M.E. (2000) Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase Activity in F-344 Rats Subchronically Exposed to Benzo(α)pyrene and Fluoranthene Through Diet, J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. 14, 155–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Borlakoglu J.T., Wilkins, J.P., and Dils, R.R. (1991) Distribution and Elimination in vivo of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Isomers and Congeners in the Pigeon, Xenobiotica 21, 433–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rietjens, I.M.C.M., den Besten, C., Hanzlik, R.P., and van Bladeren, P.J. (1997) Cytochrome P450-Catalyzed Oxidation of Halobenzene Derivatives, Chem. Res. Toxicol. 10, 629–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Williams, D.E., Lech, J.J., and Buhler, D.R. (1998). Xenobiotics and Xenoestrogens in Fish: Modulation of Cytochrome P450 and Carcinogenesis, Mutat. Res. 399, 179–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hodgson, E., Rose, R.L., Ryu, D.-Y., Falls, G., Blake, B.L., and Levi, P.E. (1995) Pesticide-Metabolizing Enzymes Toxicol. Lett. 82–83, 73–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hodgson, E., and Levi, P.E. (1996) Pesticides: An Important but Underused Model for Environmental Health Sciences, Environ. Health Perspect. 104, (Suppl. 1), 97–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Den Besten, C., Bennik, M.M., Van Iersel, M., Peters, M.A., Tennis, C., and Van Bladeren, P.J. (1994) Comparison of the Urinary Metabolite Profiles of Hexachlorobenzene and Pentachlorobenzene in the Rat, Chem. Biol. Interact. 90, 121–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hakk, H., Larsen, G., and Feil, V. (2001) Tissue Distribution, Excretion, and Metabolism of 1,2,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the Rat, Chemosphere 42, 975–983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ingebrigtsen, K., Skaare, J.U., Nafstad, I., and Forde, M. (1981) Studies on the Biliary Excretion and Metabolites of Hexachlorobenzene in the Rat, Xenobiotica 11, 795–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Boylan, J.J., Cohn, W.J., Egle, J.L., Blanke, R.V., and Guzelian, P.S. (1979) Excretion of Chlordecone by the Gastrointestinal Tract: Evidence for a Nonbiliary Mechanism, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 25, 579–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Guzelian, P.S. (1981) Therapeutic Approaches for Chlordecone Poisoning in Humans J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 8, 757–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rozman, K., Rozman, T., and Greim, H. (1981) Enhanced Fecal Elimination of Stored Hexachlorobenzene from Rats and Rhesus Monkeys by Hexadecane or Mineral Oil, Toxicology 22, 33–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rozman, K. (1985) Intestinal Excretion of Toxic Substances, Arch. Toxicol. (Suppl. 8), 87–93.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Patton, J.S. (1986) Cellular Pathways in the Movement of Lipophilic Xenobiotics from GI Tract to Breast Milk, in Human Lactation 2 (Hamosh, M., and Goldman, A.S., eds.), pp. 475–497, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gallenberg, L.A., and Vodicnik, M.J. (1987) Potential Mechanisms for Redistribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls During Pregnancy and Lactation, Xenobiotica 17, 299–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schechter, A., Ryan, J.J., and Papke, O. (1998) Decrease in Levels and Body Burden of Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, PCBs, DDE, and HCB in Blood and Milk in a Mother Nursing Twins over a Thirty-Eight Month Period, Chemosphere 37, 1807–1816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jandacek, R.J. (1982) The Effect of Nonabsorbable Lipids on the Intestinal Absorption of Lipophiles, Drug. Metab. Rev. 13, 695–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hernell, O., Staggers, J.E., and Carey, M.C. (1990) Physical-Chemical Behavior of Dietary and Biliary Lipids During Intestinal Digestion and Absorption. 2. Phase Analysis and Aggregation States of Luminal Lipids During Duodenal Fat Digestion in Healthy Adult Human Beings, Biochemistry 29, 2041–2056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mattson, F.H., and Volpenhein, R.A. (1972) Hydrolysis of Fully Esterified Alcohols Containing from One to Eight Hydroxyl Groups by the Lipolytic Enzymes of Rat Pancreatic Juice, J. Lipid Res. 13, 325–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Federal Register, Part III U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, 21 CFR Part 172, Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption: Olestra: Final Rule 62, 3118–3173. January 30, 1996.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Volpenhein, R.A., Webb, D.R., and Jandacek, R.J. (1980) Effect of a Nonabsorbable Lipid, Sucrose Polyester, on the Absorption of DDT by the Rat, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 6, 679–683.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Keller, W.C., and Yeary, R.A. (1980) A Comparison of the Effects of Mineral Oil, Vegetable Oil, and Sodium Sulfate on the Intestinal Absorption of DDT in Rodents, Clin. Toxicol. 16, 223–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Palin, K.J., Wilson, C.G., Davis, S.S., and Phillips, A.J. (1982) The Effect of Oils on the Lymphatic Absorption of DDT, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 34, 707–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Morgan, D.P., Dotson, T.B., and Lin, L.I. (1977) Effectiveness of Activated Charcoal, Mineral Oil, and Castor Oil in Limiting Gastrointestinal Absorption of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Pesticide, Clin. Toxicol. 11, 61–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Richter, E., Fichtl, B., and Schafer, S.G. (1982) Effects of Dietary Paraffin, Squalane and Sucrose Polyester on Residue Disposition and Elimination of Hexachlorobenzene in Rat, Chem. Biol. Interact. 40, 335–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mutter, L.C., Blanke, R.V., Jandacek, R.J., and Guzelian, P.S. (1988) Reduction in the Body Content of DDE in the Mongolian Gerbil Treated with Sucrose Polyester and Caloric Restriction, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 92, 428–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Geusau, A., Tschachler, E., Meixner, M., Sandermann, S., Papke, O., Wolf, C., Valic, E., Stingl G., and McLachlan, M. (1999) Olestra Increases Faecal Excretion of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, Lancet 354, 1266–1267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Moser, G.A., and McLachlan, M.S. (1999) A Non-Absorbable Dietary Fat Substitute Enhances Elimination of Persistent Lipophilic Contaminants in Humans, Chemosphere 39, 1513–1521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Boitnott, J.K., and Margolis, S. (1970) Saturated Hydrocarbons in Human Tissues. 3. Oil Droplets in the Liver and Spleen, Johns Hopkins Med. J. 127, 65–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kamimura, H., Koga, N., Oguri, K., Yoshimura, H., Inoue, H., Sato, K., and Ohku, M. (1989) Studies on Distribution, Excretion and Subacute Toxicity of Squalane in Dogs, Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi 80, 269–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Richter, E. (1986) Stimulation of Faecal Excretion of Hexachlorobenzene: A Review, IARC Sci. Publ. 77, 605–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Richter, E., Schafer, S.G., and Fichtl, B. (1983) Stimulation of the Faecal Excretion of 2,4,5,2′,4′,5′-Hexachlorobiphenyl in Rats by Squalane, Xenobiotica 13, 337–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Richter, E., Lay, J.P., Klein, W., and Korte, F. (1977) Enhanced Elimination of Hexachlorobenzene in Rats by Light Liquid Paraffin, Chemosphere 6, 357–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Richter, E., Lay, J.P., Klein, W., and Korte, F. (1979). Paraffin-Stimulated Excretion of 1,4,6,2′,4′-Pentachlorobi[14C]-phenyl by Rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 50, 17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rozman, T., Rozman, K., Williams, J., and Greim, H. (1981) Enhanced Fecal Excretion of Mirex in Rhesus Monkeys by 5% Mineral Oil in the Diet, Drug Chem. Toxicol. 4, 251–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rozman, K., Rozman, T., Williams, J., and Greim, H. (1982) Effect of Mineral Oil and/or Cholestyramine in the Diet on Biliary and Intestinal Elimination of 2,4,5,2′,4′,5′-Hexabromobiphenyl in the Rhesus Monkey, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 9, 611–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rozman, K., Rozman, T., Ballhorn, L., and Greim, H. (1982) Hexadecane Enhances Non-Biliary, Intestinal Excretion of Stored Hexachlorobenzene by Rats, Toxicology 24, 107–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rozman, T., and Rozman, K. (1983) Intraluminal Hexadecane Enhances Large Intestinal Excretion of Tissue Hexachlorobenzene in Rats, Toxicol. Lett. 16, 253–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rozman, K., Rozman, T., and Greim, H. (1983) Stimulation of Nonbiliary, Intestinal Excretion of Hexachlorobenzene in Rhesus Monkeys by Mineral Oil, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 70, 255–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rozman, K., Ballhorn, L., and Rozman, T. (1983) Mineral Oil in the Diet Enhances Fecal Excretion of DDT in the Monkey, Drug Chem. Toxicol. 6, 311–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rozman, K., Rozman, T., and Greim, H. (1983) Enhanced Intestinal Excretion of 14C-Hexachlorobenzene in Rats by Intraluminal Injection of Hexadecane, J. Appl. Toxicol. 3, 48–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rozman, K., Rozman T., Greim, H., Nieman, I.J., and Smith, G.G. (1983) Use of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Feed to Decrease Body Burdens of Lipophilic Toxicants in Livestock, J. Agric. Food Chem. 30, 98–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rozman, K., Rozman, T., and Smith, G.S. (1984) Liquid Paraffins in Feed Enhance Fecal Excretion of Mirex and DDE from Body Stores of Lactating Goats and Cows, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 32, 27–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Scheufler, E., and Rozman, K. (1984) Comparative Decontamination of Hexachlorobenzene-Exposed Rats and Rabbits by Hexadecane, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 14, 353–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Polin, D., Olson, B., Bursian, S., and Lehning, E. (1986) Enhanced Withdrawal from Chickens of Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Pentachlorophenol (PCP) by Colestipol, Mineral Oil, and/or Restricted Feeding, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 19, 359–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Crum, J.A., Aulerich, R.J., Polin, D., Braselton, W.E., and Bursian, S.J. (1994) The Efficacy of Mineral Oil Combined with Feed Restriction in Enhancing the Elimination of Heptachlor Epoxide from Mink (Mustela vison), Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 26, 374–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Cohn, W.J., Boylan, J.J., Blanke, R.V., Farris, M.W., Howell, J.R., and Guzelian, P.S. (1978) Treatment of Chlordecone (Kepone) Toxicity with Cholestyramine, N. Engl. J. Med. 298, 243–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Boylan, J.J., Egle, J.L., and Guzelian, P.S. (1978) Cholestyramine: Use as a New Therapeutic Approach for Chlordecone (Kepone) Poisoning, Science 199, 893–895.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Davison, K.L., and Sell, J.L. (1978) Dieldrin-14C Elimination from Turkeys, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 7, 245–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Davison, K.L., and Sell, J.L. (1978) Dieldrin-14C Elimination from Chickens, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 7, 369–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ballhorn, L., Rozman, T., Rozman, K., Korte, F., and Greim, H. (1981) Cholestyramine Enhances Fecal Elimination of Pentachlorophenol in Rhesus Monkeys, Chemosphere 10, 877–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rozman, T., Ballhorn, L., Rozman, K., Klaasen, C., and Greim, H. (1982) Effect of Cholestyramine on the Disposition of Pentachlorophenol in Rhesus Monkeys, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 10, 277–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Polin, D., Lehning, E., Pullen, D., Bursian, S., and Leavitt, R. (1985) Procedures to Enhance Withdrawal of Xenobiotics from Chickens, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 16, 243–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Iida, T., Hirakawa, H., Matsueda, T., Nakagawa, R., Takenaka, S., Morita, K., Narazaki, Y., Fukamachi, K., Tokiwa, H., Takahashi, K., and Yoshimura, H. (1991) Therapeutic Trial for Promotion of Fecal Excretion by PCDFs and PCBs by the Administration of Cholestyramine in Yusho Patients, Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi 82, 317–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Murai, K., Tsuji, H., and Fujishima, M. (1991) Treatment of Yusho Patients with Cholestyramine, Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi 82, 326–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Morita, K., Hironori, H., Matsueda, T., Iida, T., and Tokiwa, H. (1993) Stimulating Effect of Dietary Fiber on Fecal Excretion of Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDF) and Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) in Rats, Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi 84, 273–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    McConnell, E.E., Harris, M.W., and Moore, J.A. (1980) Studies on the Use of Activated Charcoal and Cholestyramine for Reducing the Body Burden of Polybrominated Biphenyls, Drug Chem. Toxicol. 3, 277–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Fries, G.F., Marrow, G.S., Gordon, C.H., Dryden, L.P., and Hartman, A.M. (1970) Effect of Activated Carbon on Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides from Rats and Cows, J. Dairy Sci. 53, 1632–1637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Manara, L., Coccia, P., and Croci, T. (1984). Prevention of TCDD Toxicity in Laboratory Rodents by Addition of Charcoal or Cholic Acids to Chow, Food Chem. Toxicol. 22, 815–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Morita, K., Matsueda, T., and Iida, T. (1999) Effect of Protoporphyrin on Digestive Tract Absorption of Dioxins in Rats, Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi 90, 162–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ikegami, S., Umegaki, K., Kawashima, Y.L., and Ichikawa, T. (1994) Viscous Indigestible Polysaccharides Reduce Accumulation of Pentachlorobenzene in Rats, J. Nutr. 124, 754–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Umegaki, K., Ikegami, S., and Ichikawa, T. (1995) Fish Oil Enhances Pentachlorobenzene Metabolism and Reduces Its Accumuation in Rats, J. Nutr. 125, 147–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Umegaki, K., and Ikegami, S. (1998) Feeding Fish Oil to Rats Accelerates the Metabolism of Hexachlorobenzene, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 44, 301–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Geyer, H.J., Scheunert, I., Rapp, K., Gebefugi, I., Steinberg, C., and Kettrup, A. (1993) The Relevance of Fat Content in Toxicity of Lipophilic Chemicals to Terrestial Animals with Special Reference to Dieldrin and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 26, 45–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Mitjavila, S., Carrera, G., and Fernandez, Y. (1981) Evaluation of the Toxic Risk of Accumulated DDT in the Rat: During Fat Mobilization, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 10, 471–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Polischuk, S.C., Letcher, R.J., Norstrom, R.J., and Ramsay, M.A. (1995) Preliminary Results of Fasting on the Kinetics of Organochlorines in Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus), Sci. Total Environ. 15, 160–161, 465–472.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Walford, R.L., Mock, D., MacCallum, T., and Laseter, J.L. (1999) Physiologic Changes in Humans Subjected to Severe, Selective Calorie Restriction for Two Years in Biosphere 2: Health, Aging, and Toxicological Perspectives, Toxicol. Sci. 52 (Suppl. 2), 61–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lovelady, C.A., Whitehead, R.A., McCrory, M.A., Nommsen-Rivers, L.A., Mabury, S., and Dewey, K.G. (1999) Weight Change During Lactation Does Not Alter the Concentrations of Chlorinated Organic Contaminants in Breast Milk of Women with Low Exposure, J. Hum. Lact. 15, 307–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Dale, W.E., Gaines, T.B., and Hayes, W.J. (1962) Storage and Excretion of DDT in Starved Rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 4, 89–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Findlay, G.M., and DeFreitas, A.S.W. (1971) DDT Movement from Adipocyte to Muscle Cell During Lipid Utilization, Nature 229, 63–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Corbella, J., To-Figueras, J., Rodamilans, M., and Gomez, J. (1986) Mobilization, Redistribution and Excretion of Hexachlorobenzene Following Food Restriction in Rats, IARC Sci. Publ. 77, 289–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Umegaki, K., Ikegami, S., and Ichikawa, T. (1993) Effects of Restricted Feeding on the Absorption, Metabolism, and Accumulation of Pentachlorobenzene in Rats, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 39, 11–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bigsby, R.M., Caperell-Grant, A., and Madhukar, B.V. (1997) Xenobiotics Released from Fat During Fasting Produce Estrogenic Effects in Ovariectomized Mice, Cancer Res. 57, 865–869.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnati

Personalised recommendations