, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 681–687 | Cite as

Quantitative analysis of long-chain trans-monoenes originating from hydrogenated marine oil

  • Robert Wilson
  • Karin Lyall
  • J. Anne Payne
  • Rudolph A. Riemersma


Gas chromatography (GC) is used for the analysis of trans-fatty acids in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. Although trans-isomers of C18 carbon length predominate in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, trans-isomers of C20 and C22 carbon length occur in partially hydrogenated fish oil. We report a simple silver ion chromatographic combined with capillary GC technique for quantitative analysis of trans-monoenes derived from partially hydrogenated fish oil. Silver nitrate thinlayer chromatographic (TLC) plates are developed in toluene/hexane (50∶50, vol/vol). Fatty acid methyl esters are separated into saturates (Rf 0.79), trans-monoenes (Rf 0.49), cis-monoenes (Rf, 0.27), dienes (Rf, 0.10), and polyunsaturated fatty acids with three or more double bonds remaining at the origin. The isolated trans-monoenes are quantitatively analyzed by capillary GC. The technique of argentation TLC with GC analysis of isolated methyl esters is highly reproducible with 4.8% variation (i.e., coefficient of variation, CV%) in Rf values and 4.3 and 6.9% CV% in quantification within batch and between batch, respectively. Furthermore, the combined technique revealed that direct GC analysis underestimated the trans-content of margarines by at least 30%. In this study, C20 and C22trans-monoenes were found in relatively large quantities; 13.9% (range 10.3–19.6%) and 7.5% (range 5.3–11.5%), respectively, in margarine purchased in 1995, but these C20 and C22trans-monoenes were much reduced (0.1%) in a fresh selection of margarine purchased in 1998. Compositional data from labels underestimated the trans-content of margarines, especially those dervied from hydrogenated marine oil. Low levels of C20trans-monoenes (range 0.1–0.3%) and C22trans-monoenes (range 0.0–0.1%) were identified in adipose tissue obtained from healthy volunteers in 1995, presumably indicating consumption of partially hydrogenated fish oil.



butylated hydroxytoluene


coefficient of variation


fatty acid methyl ester


gas chromatography


high density lipoprotein


low density lipoprotein


mass spectrometry


monounsaturated fatty acids


polyunsaturated fatty acids


distance migrated by compound divided by the distance of solvent mobility


solid phase extraction


thin-layer chromatography


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Copyright information

© AOCS Press 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Wilson
    • 2
  • Karin Lyall
    • 2
  • J. Anne Payne
    • 2
  • Rudolph A. Riemersma
    • 2
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical PhysiologyUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway
  2. 2.Cardiovascular Research UnitUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghScotland

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