Enzymes have effectively assisted the development and improvement of modern household and industrial detergents. The major classes of detergent enzymes—proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases—each provide specific benefits for application in laundry and automatic dishwashing. Historically, proteases were first to be used extensively in laundry detergents. In addition to raising the level of cleaning, they have also provided environmental benefits by reducing energy consumption through shorter washing times, lower washing temperatures, and reduced water consumption. Today proteases are joined by lipases and amylases in improving detergent efficacy especially for household laundering at lower temperatures and, in industrial cleaning operations, at lower pH levels. Cellulases contribute to overall fabric care by rejuvenating or maintaining the new appearance of washed garments. Enzymes are produced by fermentation technologies that utilize renewable resources.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Röhm, O., German Patent DE 283 923 (1913).
Conrad, L.S., T. Damhus, O. Kirk, and P. Schneider, Enzymatic Inhibition of Dye Transfer, INFORM 8:950–957, 1997.
Houston, J.H., in Enzymes in Detergency, edited by J.H. van Ee, O. Misset, and E.J. Baas, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1997, Surfactant Science Series, Vol. 69, pp. 11–21.
Krawczyk, T., Detergent Enzymes, INFORM 8:7–14 (1997).
Braae, K. (ed.), Dansk Husmoder Leksikon, Standard Forlaget, Copenhagen, 1954, pp. 560–569.
Rieck, H.-P., in New Horizons. An AOCS/CSMA Detergent Industry Conference, edited by R.T. Coffey, AOCS Press, Champaign, 1996, pp. 23–36.
Hloch, H.G., Tendenzen im Bereich Wasch-und Spülmaschinen, in The 37th International WFK Detergency Conference, Proceedings, wfk-Forschungsinstitute für Reinigungstechnologie e.V., D-47798 Krefeld, 1996, pp. 8–14.
Kemna, R., in Ibid. Tendenzen im Bereich Wasch-und Spülmaschinen, in The 37th International WFK Detergency Conference, Proceedings, wfk-Forschungsinstitute für Reinigungstechnologie e.V., D-47798 Krefeld, 1996, pp. 22–27.
Showell, M.S., in Powdered Detergents, edited by M.S. Showell, and E.J. Baas, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1998, Surfactant Science Series, Vol. 71, pp. 1–19.
Andersen, M., and H. Lundsgaard, Vaskemaskiner in Rad & Resultater, Forbrugerstyrelsen, Copenhagen, 1997, Vol. 37. pp. 2–7.
Härer, J., Geschirrspülen von Hand und in der Maschine—ein Systemvergleich, in The 37th International WFK Detergency Conference, Proceedings, wfk-Forschungsinstitute für Reinigungstechnologie e.V., D-47798 Krefeld, 1996, pp. 156–158.
Buchmeier, W., H. Andree, P. Jeschke, J. Härer, and R. Sorg, Corrosion of Tableware in Machine Dishwashing, Henkel Referate 33:76–84 (1997).
Gutzschebauch, C., J. Härer, P. Jeschke, F.R. Schröder, and D. Zaika, Dishwashing by Hand and by Machine—a System Comparison, 33:69–75 (1997).
Eriksen, N., Detergents in Industrial Enzymology—Second Edition, edited by T. Godfrey, and S. West, Stockton Press, New York and Macmillan Press Ltd. London, 1996, pp. 189–200.
Potthoff, A., W. Serve, and P. Macharis, The Cleaning Revolution, in Dairy Industries 62:25–29, 1997.
Krack, R., and H. Manners, Patent Anmeldung, WO 96/23579 (PCT/EP96/00258) (Henkel-Ecolab GmbH & Co.) (1996).
Stutz, Chr., The Use of Enzymes in Ultrafiltration, in Fruit Processing 7, 1993, pp. 1–4.
Olsen, H.S., PCT/WO 97/02753 (Novo Nordisk A/S) (1997).
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Documentation of the threshold limit values, 5th edn., 1986, pp. 540–541.
Peters, G., and D.P. Mackenzie, in Enzymes in Detergency, edited by J.H. van Ee, O. Misset, and E.J. Baas, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1997, Surfactant Science Series, Vol. 69, pp. 327–340.
National Research Council (NRC), Enzyme-Containing Laundering Compounds and Consumer Health, Report of the ad hoc Committee on Enzyme Detergents, Division of Medical Sciences, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Report PB 204 118, Washington, DC, 1971, pp. 1–31.
Gormsen, E., E. Marcussen, and T. Damhus, in Powdered Detergents, edited by M.S. Showell, and E.J. Baas, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1998, Surfactant Science Series, Vol. 71, pp. 137–163.
Adler-Nissen, J., and H.S. Olsen, The Influence of Peptide Chain Length on Taste and Functional Properties of Enzymatically Modified Soy Protein, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 92, pp. 125–146, 1979.
Adler-Nissen, J., Enzymic Hydrolysis of Food Proteins, Applied Science Publishers, London, 1986, pp. 25–43, 170–186.
Linderstrøm-Lang, K., Proteins and Enzymes. III. The Initial Stages in the Breakdown of Proteins by Enzymes, Lane Medical Lectures, Stanford University Press, California, Vol. VI, 1952, pp. 53–72.
Eilertsen, J.H., A.D. Fog, and K. Gibson, U.S. Patent 4,497,897 (Novo Nordisk) (1982).
Eilertsen, J.H., A.D. Fog, and K. Gibson, U.S. Patent 4,543,333 (Novo Nordisk) (1982).
Jesen, G., The Development and Application of a New Stable Detergent Amylase, SÖFW-J. 123:723–731 (1997).
Baeck, A.C., T.W. Horner, R. Ohtani, K. Pramod, and S. Rai, Patent WO9704067-A1 (1997).
Gibson, K., The Importance of Detergent Amylases for Whiteness Maintenance, Paper Presented at CID, Genoa, October 22–24, 1997 (available from Novo Nordisk A/S as A-6506)
Grime, J.K., Laundry Technology Trends in the Americas, 3rd World Conference and Exhibition on Detergents: Global Perspectives, edited by A. Cahn, AOCS Press, Champaign, 1993, pp. 64–71.
Jakobsen, T.S., P. Lindegaard, and M. Chan, Colour Care Cellulases, INFORM 9:788–792 (1998).
Nielsen, P.H., Development of New Detergent Enzymes, Paper Presented at ISSD96, China, 1996 (available from Novo Nordisk A/S as A-6457).
Gormsen, E., and H. Malmos, Lipolase tm—a Lipase for the Detergent Industry, The Soap and Detergent Association, 1991 Annual Convention, Boca Raton, Florida, February 2, 1991.
Gormsen, E., New Detergent Enzymes Based on Biotechnology, JOCS/AOCS Conference in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, September 1997 (available from Novo Nordisk A/S as A-6537).
Aaslyng, D., E. Gormsen, and H. Malmos, Mechanistic Studies of Proteases and Lipases for the Detergent Industry, J. Chem. Tech. Biotechnol. 50:321–330 (1991).
Hagen, H.A., in New Horizons. An AOCS/CSMA Detergent Industry Conference, edited by R.T. Coffey, AOCS Press, Champaign, 1996, pp. 57–62.
Damhus, T., L.S. Conrad, and T.T. Hansen, An Enzymatic System for Dye Transfer Inhibition in Laundry Detergents, Presented at the 88th AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo, Seattle, Washington, May 11–14, 1997.
Fleuren, R., P. Bauditz, S. Schløsler, and H. Bodenhoff, Paper presented at the 88th AOCS Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, May 14–18, 1997.
About this article
Cite this article
Olsen, H.S., Falholt, P. The role of enzymes in modern detergency. J Surfact Deterg 1, 555–567 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11743-998-0058-7
- automatic dishwashing
- enzymes in detergents
- industrial cleaning
- storage stability
- wash performance