Advertisement

Journal of Surfactants and Detergents

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 555–567 | Cite as

The role of enzymes in modern detergency

  • Hans Sejr OlsenEmail author
  • Per Falholt
Review

Abstract

Enzymes have effectively assisted the development and improvement of modern household and industrial detergents. The major classes of detergent enzymes—proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases—each provide specific benefits for application in laundry and automatic dishwashing. Historically, proteases were first to be used extensively in laundry detergents. In addition to raising the level of cleaning, they have also provided environmental benefits by reducing energy consumption through shorter washing times, lower washing temperatures, and reduced water consumption. Today proteases are joined by lipases and amylases in improving detergent efficacy especially for household laundering at lower temperatures and, in industrial cleaning operations, at lower pH levels. Cellulases contribute to overall fabric care by rejuvenating or maintaining the new appearance of washed garments. Enzymes are produced by fermentation technologies that utilize renewable resources.

Key Words

Amylases automatic dishwashing cellulases enzymes in detergents industrial cleaning laundry lipases proteases storage stability wash performance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Röhm, O., German Patent DE 283 923 (1913).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Conrad, L.S., T. Damhus, O. Kirk, and P. Schneider, Enzymatic Inhibition of Dye Transfer, INFORM 8:950–957, 1997.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Houston, J.H., in Enzymes in Detergency, edited by J.H. van Ee, O. Misset, and E.J. Baas, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1997, Surfactant Science Series, Vol. 69, pp. 11–21.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Krawczyk, T., Detergent Enzymes, INFORM 8:7–14 (1997).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Braae, K. (ed.), Dansk Husmoder Leksikon, Standard Forlaget, Copenhagen, 1954, pp. 560–569.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rieck, H.-P., in New Horizons. An AOCS/CSMA Detergent Industry Conference, edited by R.T. Coffey, AOCS Press, Champaign, 1996, pp. 23–36.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hloch, H.G., Tendenzen im Bereich Wasch-und Spülmaschinen, in The 37th International WFK Detergency Conference, Proceedings, wfk-Forschungsinstitute für Reinigungstechnologie e.V., D-47798 Krefeld, 1996, pp. 8–14.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kemna, R., in Ibid. Tendenzen im Bereich Wasch-und Spülmaschinen, in The 37th International WFK Detergency Conference, Proceedings, wfk-Forschungsinstitute für Reinigungstechnologie e.V., D-47798 Krefeld, 1996, pp. 22–27.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Showell, M.S., in Powdered Detergents, edited by M.S. Showell, and E.J. Baas, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1998, Surfactant Science Series, Vol. 71, pp. 1–19.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andersen, M., and H. Lundsgaard, Vaskemaskiner in Rad & Resultater, Forbrugerstyrelsen, Copenhagen, 1997, Vol. 37. pp. 2–7.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Härer, J., Geschirrspülen von Hand und in der Maschine—ein Systemvergleich, in The 37th International WFK Detergency Conference, Proceedings, wfk-Forschungsinstitute für Reinigungstechnologie e.V., D-47798 Krefeld, 1996, pp. 156–158.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Buchmeier, W., H. Andree, P. Jeschke, J. Härer, and R. Sorg, Corrosion of Tableware in Machine Dishwashing, Henkel Referate 33:76–84 (1997).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gutzschebauch, C., J. Härer, P. Jeschke, F.R. Schröder, and D. Zaika, Dishwashing by Hand and by Machine—a System Comparison, 33:69–75 (1997).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eriksen, N., Detergents in Industrial Enzymology—Second Edition, edited by T. Godfrey, and S. West, Stockton Press, New York and Macmillan Press Ltd. London, 1996, pp. 189–200.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Potthoff, A., W. Serve, and P. Macharis, The Cleaning Revolution, in Dairy Industries 62:25–29, 1997.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Krack, R., and H. Manners, Patent Anmeldung, WO 96/23579 (PCT/EP96/00258) (Henkel-Ecolab GmbH & Co.) (1996).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stutz, Chr., The Use of Enzymes in Ultrafiltration, in Fruit Processing 7, 1993, pp. 1–4.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Olsen, H.S., PCT/WO 97/02753 (Novo Nordisk A/S) (1997).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Documentation of the threshold limit values, 5th edn., 1986, pp. 540–541.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peters, G., and D.P. Mackenzie, in Enzymes in Detergency, edited by J.H. van Ee, O. Misset, and E.J. Baas, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1997, Surfactant Science Series, Vol. 69, pp. 327–340.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    National Research Council (NRC), Enzyme-Containing Laundering Compounds and Consumer Health, Report of the ad hoc Committee on Enzyme Detergents, Division of Medical Sciences, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Report PB 204 118, Washington, DC, 1971, pp. 1–31.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gormsen, E., E. Marcussen, and T. Damhus, in Powdered Detergents, edited by M.S. Showell, and E.J. Baas, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1998, Surfactant Science Series, Vol. 71, pp. 137–163.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Adler-Nissen, J., and H.S. Olsen, The Influence of Peptide Chain Length on Taste and Functional Properties of Enzymatically Modified Soy Protein, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 92, pp. 125–146, 1979.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Adler-Nissen, J., Enzymic Hydrolysis of Food Proteins, Applied Science Publishers, London, 1986, pp. 25–43, 170–186.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Linderstrøm-Lang, K., Proteins and Enzymes. III. The Initial Stages in the Breakdown of Proteins by Enzymes, Lane Medical Lectures, Stanford University Press, California, Vol. VI, 1952, pp. 53–72.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Eilertsen, J.H., A.D. Fog, and K. Gibson, U.S. Patent 4,497,897 (Novo Nordisk) (1982).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eilertsen, J.H., A.D. Fog, and K. Gibson, U.S. Patent 4,543,333 (Novo Nordisk) (1982).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jesen, G., The Development and Application of a New Stable Detergent Amylase, SÖFW-J. 123:723–731 (1997).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Baeck, A.C., T.W. Horner, R. Ohtani, K. Pramod, and S. Rai, Patent WO9704067-A1 (1997).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gibson, K., The Importance of Detergent Amylases for Whiteness Maintenance, Paper Presented at CID, Genoa, October 22–24, 1997 (available from Novo Nordisk A/S as A-6506)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Grime, J.K., Laundry Technology Trends in the Americas, 3rd World Conference and Exhibition on Detergents: Global Perspectives, edited by A. Cahn, AOCS Press, Champaign, 1993, pp. 64–71.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jakobsen, T.S., P. Lindegaard, and M. Chan, Colour Care Cellulases, INFORM 9:788–792 (1998).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nielsen, P.H., Development of New Detergent Enzymes, Paper Presented at ISSD96, China, 1996 (available from Novo Nordisk A/S as A-6457).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gormsen, E., and H. Malmos, Lipolase tm—a Lipase for the Detergent Industry, The Soap and Detergent Association, 1991 Annual Convention, Boca Raton, Florida, February 2, 1991.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gormsen, E., New Detergent Enzymes Based on Biotechnology, JOCS/AOCS Conference in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, September 1997 (available from Novo Nordisk A/S as A-6537).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Aaslyng, D., E. Gormsen, and H. Malmos, Mechanistic Studies of Proteases and Lipases for the Detergent Industry, J. Chem. Tech. Biotechnol. 50:321–330 (1991).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hagen, H.A., in New Horizons. An AOCS/CSMA Detergent Industry Conference, edited by R.T. Coffey, AOCS Press, Champaign, 1996, pp. 57–62.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Damhus, T., L.S. Conrad, and T.T. Hansen, An Enzymatic System for Dye Transfer Inhibition in Laundry Detergents, Presented at the 88th AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo, Seattle, Washington, May 11–14, 1997.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fleuren, R., P. Bauditz, S. Schløsler, and H. Bodenhoff, Paper presented at the 88th AOCS Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, May 14–18, 1997.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Enzyme Development & ApplicationEnzyme BusinessBagsvaerdDenmark

Personalised recommendations