The Nucleation and Growth of Succinic Acid in the Presence of Surfactants
- 165 Downloads
Impurities may have a marked effect on crystal nucleation and growth. To further understand the role of impurities, the crystallization (solubility, nucleation, growth) of succinic acid in water in the presence of surfactants such as polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) was investigated experimentally. The presence of CTAB, SDBS or Tween 80 had little influence on succinic acid solubility but did slow crystallization kinetics. The surfactant monomer in solution, not micelles, proved to play the primary role affecting nucleation. The nucleation inhibition by surfactant was analyzed on the base of a two-step nucleation process: (1) the inhibition on the formation and growth of succinic acid nanodroplets and (2) the influence on succinic acid single nucleus (SASN) in secondary nucleation. SASN may play important role in secondary nucleation, although further work is necessary to conform this. The length of the surfactant hydrocarbon chain was found to affect crystal habit development.
KeywordsSolubility Nucleation Crystal growth Surfactant
The authors are grateful to the National Science Foundation (NSFC. 21106110, 21536009), Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China (2013JQ2020) for their financial assistance in this project.
- 4.Davey RJ. The role of additives in precipitation processes. In: Jancic SJ, de Jong EJ (eds) industrial crystallization 81; North-Holland: Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1982, 123.Google Scholar
- 9.Jang SM, Myerson AS. A comparison of binding energy, metastable zone width, and nucleation induction time of succinic acid with various additives. In: Myerson AS; Meenan Green DA, editors. Crystal growth of organic materials. American Chemical Society: Washington, D C. 1996, 53–8.Google Scholar
- 18.Hou J, Wu S, Li R, Dong W, Gong J. The induction time, interfacial energy and growth mechanism of maltitol in batch cooling crystallization. Cryst Res Technol. 2012;47:888–95.Google Scholar
- 20.Song WL, Li A, Xi XQ. Water solubility enhancement of phthalates by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and b-cyclodextrin. Ind Eng Chem Data. 2003;42:949–55.Google Scholar
- 22.Myerson AS. Handbook of industrial crystallization. 2nd ed. Woburn: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2002.Google Scholar
- 25.Dawson DM, Pritchard AM. Proceedings of 22nd AICHE/ASME National, Heat Transfer Conference, Niagara Falls, NY, 1984, 19.Google Scholar