Journal of Surfactants and Detergents

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 553–561 | Cite as

Recovery of Saponins from Jua (Ziziphus joazeiro) by Micellar Extraction and Cloud Point Preconcentration

  • Bernardo Dias Ribeiro
  • Daniel Weingart Barreto
  • Maria Alice Zarur Coelho
Original Article


Juá (Ziziphus joazeiro) is a Brazilian plant and its bark has been used as a detergent and phytotherapic due to its high saponin content (2–10 %). Saponins are triterpenic glycosides with some properties that aid their use in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The object of the present work was to develop an extraction and concentration process of saponins from jua bark, using green solvents such as water and ethanol. Firstly, the extraction conditions optimization was carried out using a central composite design, and compared with other methods such as Soxhlet, ultrasound-assisted extraction and micellar extraction. Then, cloud point preconcentration was tested to select the salt type and its concentration which promotes a higher concentration factor and partition coefficient at room temperature. Finally, the removal of a t-octyl phenol ethoxylate (9–10 EO) nonionic surfactant by adsorption was evaluated by optimizing the adsorbent type and its concentration, temperature and time of adsorption, in addition to the adsorbent recycling. Orbital shaker extraction leads to a recovery of 45.6 % saponins under the following conditions: temperature, 38.8 °C; jua/solvent ratio, 0.272; stirring speed, 300 rpm; extraction time, 2 h. Under these conditions, saponins recovery reached 90.8 % when using 15 % v/v of the nonionic surfactant, and a preconcentration factor of 14.2 was obtained by adding sodium carbonate 20 % w/v. The preconcentration factor decreased to a value of 10.1, after nonionic surfactant removal by a hydrophobic crosslinked polystyrene copolymer resin.


Jua Saponins Micellar extraction Cloud point Alkylphenol ethoxylate 


  1. 1.
    Barbosa-Filho JM, Trigueiro JA, Cheriyan U, Bhattacharyya J (1985) Constituents of stem-bark of Zizyphus joazeiro. J Nat Prod 48:152–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barbosa-Filho JM (1997) Quimiodiversidade e potencialidade farmacológica da flora paraibana. Cad Farmácia 13:85–102Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Higuchi R, Kubota S, Komori T, Kawasaki T, Pandey VB, Singh JP, Shah AH (1984) Triterpenoid saponins from the bark of Zizyphus joazeiro. Phytochem 23:2597–2600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schühly W, Heilmann J, Çalis I, Sticher O (2000) Novel Triterpene Saponins from Zizyphus joazeiro. Helv Chim Acta 83:1509–1516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Güçlü-Üstündag Ö, Mazza G (2007) Saponins: properties, applications and processing. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 47:231–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kalinowska M, Zimowski J, Paczkowski C, Wojciechowski ZA (2005) The formation of sugar chains in triterpenoid saponins and glycoalkaloids. Phytochem Rev 4:237–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oleszek WA (2000) Saponins. In: Naidu AS (ed) Natural food antimicrobial systems, CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sparg SG, Light ME, Van Staden J (2004) Biological activities and distribution of plant saponins. J Ethnopharm 94:219–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vincken JP, Heng L, De Groot A, Gruppen H (2007) Saponins, classification and occurrence in plant kingdom. Phytochem 68:275–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gafner S, Bergeron C, McCollom MM, Cooper LM, McPhail KL, Gerwick WH, Angerhofer CK (2004) Evaluation of the efficiency of three different solvent systems to extract triterpene saponins from roots of Panax quinquefolius using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 52:1546–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fang Q, Yeung HW, Leung HW, Huie CW (2000) Micelle-mediated extraction and preconcentration of ginsenosides from Chinese herbal medicine. J Chromat A 904:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wanezaki S, Tsuzaki S, Araki H (2005) Soybean saponin-containing material and process for producing the same. US2005/0123662 A1Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang Q, Ma S, Fu B, Lee FSC, Wang X (2004) Development of multi-stage countercurrent extraction technology for the extraction of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch). Biochem Eng J 21:285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang SQ, Zhang JS, Wang CZ (2007) Extraction of steroid saponins from Paris polyphylla Sm. var. yunnanensis using novel ultrahigh pressure extraction technology. Pharm Chem J 41:27-3Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ong ES (2004) Extraction methods and chemical standardization of botanicals and herbal preparations. J Chromat B 812:23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang L, Weller CL (2006) Recent advances in extraction of nutraceuticals from plants. Trends Food Sci Technol 17:300–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ong ES, Len SM (2003) Pressurized hot water extraction of berberine, baicalein and glycyrrhizin in medicinal plants. Anal Chim Acta 482(1):81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhao S, Kwok KC, Liang H (2007) Investigation on ultrasound assisted extraction of saikosaponins from Radix Bupleuri. Sep Purif Technol 55:307–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Makkar HPS, Siddhuraju P, Becker K (2007) Methods in molecular biology. In: Plant Secondary Metabolites. vol 393 Humana Press, TotowaGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Waterman PG, Mole S (1994) Analysis of phenolic plant metabolites. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Somogyi M (1952) Notes on sugar determination. J Biol Chem 195:19–23Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Forciniti D (2000) Preparation of aqueous two-phase systems. In: Hatti-Kaul R (ed) Aqueous two-phase systems. Humana Press, TotowaGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cheetham PSJ (1979) Removal of Triton X-100 from aqueous solution using amberlite XAD-2. Anal Biochem 92:447–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tian M, Yan H, Row KH (2008) Extraction of glycyrrhizic acid and glabridin from licorice. Int J Mol Sci 9:571–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Choi MPK, Chan KKC, Leung HW, Huie CW (2003) Pressurized liquid extraction of active ingredients (ginsenosides) from medicinal plants using non-ionic surfactant solutions. J Chromat A 983:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sun C, Xie Y, Tian Q, Liu H (2008) Analysis of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin in liquorice root with microwave-assisted micellar extraction and pre-concentration. Phytochem Anal 19:160–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sun C, Xie Y, Liu H (2007) Microwave-assisted micellar extraction and determination of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin in licorice root by HPLC. Chin J Chem Eng 15:474–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Quina FH, Hinze WL (1999) Surfactant-mediated cloud point extractions: an environmentally benign alternative separation approach. Ind Eng Chem Res 38:4150–4168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Paleologos EK, Giokas DL, Karayannis MI (2005) Micelle-mediated separation and cloud-point extraction. Trends Anal Chem 24:426–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Trescec A, Simic M, Branovic K, Gebauer B, Benko B (1999) Removal of detergent and solvent from solvent–detergent-treated immunoglobulins. J Chromat A 852:87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Calado V, Montgomery DC (2003) Planejamento de Experimentos usando o Statistica. E-papers Serviços Editoriais, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang Y, Yan Y, Hu S, Han J, Xu X (2010) Phase diagrams of ammonium sulfate + ethanol/1-propanol/2-propanol + water aqueous two-phase systems at 298.15 K and correlation. J Chem Eng Data 55:876–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang Y, Hu S, Han J, Yan Y (2010) Measurement and correlation of phase diagram data for several hydrophilic alcohol + citrate aqueous two-phase systems at 298.15 K. J Chem Eng Data 55:4574–4579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jian HI, Liao XX, Zhu LW, Zhang WM, Jiang JX (2011) Synergism and foaming properties in binary mixtures of a biosurfactant derived from Camellia oleifera Abel and synthetic surfactants. J Colloid Interface Sci 359:487–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Greve A, Kula MR (1991) Phase diagrams of new aqueous phase systems composed of aliphatic alcohols, salts and water. Fluid Ph Equilib 62:53–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernardo Dias Ribeiro
    • 1
  • Daniel Weingart Barreto
    • 1
  • Maria Alice Zarur Coelho
    • 1
  1. 1.School of ChemistryFederal University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations