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Analysis of the friction behavior of DLC in warm bulk forming by using the ring compression test

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The reduction of die wear is an effective way to decrease costs within bulk forming processes. Therefore, specific tool materials and heat treatments as well as special coatings are used to prolong the lifetime of the tools. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings show high hardness and superior frictional behavior. However, these coatings seem to be inappropriate for hot forming due to degradation processes at elevated temperatures. But for warm forming, due to the lower temperature input into the cavity, DLC might be an appropriate coating. Friction influences the shear stresses on the cavity surface and is therefore an important factor for reducing die wear. Hence, the analysis of the frictional behavior of DLC coatings within warm forming by using the ring compression test will be presented within this paper. An amorphous hydrogenated carbon coating and six metallic doped amorphous hydrogenated carbon coatings (Cr, V and W each in two variants) are compared to CrN and no coating. Firstly, nomograms are graphed by the use of finite-element-analysis. Thereafter two test series are carried out varying forming temperature and lubrication. The results show that DLC coatings with and without metallic doping are able to reduce friction in warm forming. Within the investigations, an amorphous hydrogenated carbon doped with 15 % chromium shows the lowest friction factor and is able to reduce the friction factor compared to no coating by up to 64 % within warm forming.

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The authors thank the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft—DFG) for the funding of the research project “Untersuchungen zur Vorformung von Stahl im Halbwarmtemperaturbereich mit modifizierten kohlenstoffbasierten Schichtsystemen” (DFG Be 11691/100-1, BR2178/13-1).

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Correspondence to Andreas Krause.

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Krause, A., Weirauch, R., Bräuer, G. et al. Analysis of the friction behavior of DLC in warm bulk forming by using the ring compression test. Prod. Eng. Res. Devel. 9, 41–49 (2015).

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