The acoustic emission technique is a very promising non-destructive and online capable approach for the detection of damage events in metal forming processes. The feasibility of using this testing method for online monitoring of cold forging processes of the case hardening steel 1.7321 (20MoCr4) was experimentally proven. In this paper, exemplary upsetting tests under varying test conditions were continuously monitored to analyze the relationship between cracking and resulting AE as well as to determine ideal AE measuring parameters. Finally, the critical forming stage of an industrial cold forging process for manufacturing of drive bevel gears is examined by applying acoustic emission technique. Cracking and tool wear were detected by analyzing the distribution of the AE parameters energy, hits and amplitude over the forming process.
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The present work was carried out in the research project IGF 16821 N "Increasing Process Control in Industrial Cold Forging of Heat-Treatable and Case Hardening Steels by Applying Acoustic Emission Techniques" funded in the frame of the Industrial Collaborative Research Program (IGF) of the Industrial Research Associations (AiF). The authors thank the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) for funding the project and the Research Association for Steel Application (FOSTA) for the project coordination. The authors also thank the Daimler AG for the provided cold forging tool and material.
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Behrens, BA., Santangelo, A. & Buse, C. Acoustic emission technique for online monitoring during cold forging of steel components: a promising approach for online crack detection in metal forming processes. Prod. Eng. Res. Devel. 7, 423–432 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11740-013-0452-8