Skip to main content

Table 1 Main characteristics of included studies

From: Analysis of common methodological flaws in the highest cited e-cigarette epidemiology research

Sources Citations Study design Outcomes of interest assessed Country
Potential effect of vaping on Epidemiology of smoking
Alzahrani et al. [4] 172 Cross-sectional Myocardial infarction Yes US
Barrington-Trimis et al. [5] 61 Three pooled cohorts Smoking initiation US
Beard et al. [6] 34 Repeated cross-sectional Smoking initiation UK
Bhatta et al. [7] 62 Cross-sectional Myocardial infarction Yes US
Biener et al. [8] 358 Longitudinal Smoking cessation/reduction US
Bold et al. [9] 125 Longitudinal Smoking initiation US
Brown et al. [10] 215 Cross-sectional Smoking cessation/reduction UK
Etter et al. [11] 286 Longitudinal Smoking cessation/reduction US, UK, Switzerland
Giovenco et al. [12] 114 Cross-sectional Smoking cessation/reduction US
Gmel et al. [13] 51 Longitudinal Smoking cessation/reduction - Switzerland
Goldenson et al. [14] 94 Prospective cohort Smoking initiation US
Gomajee et al. [15] 30 Cohort Smoking cessation/reduction France
Grana et al. [16] 309 Longitudinal Smoking cessation/reduction US
Hitchman et al. [17] 266 Cross-sectional Smoking cessation/reduction UK
Leventhal et al. [18] 115 Longitudinal Smoking initiation US
Levy et al. [19] 97 Cross-sectional Smoking initiation US
Martinez et al. [20] 22 Cross-sectional Smoking cessation/reduction US
McConnel et al. [21] 203 Cross-sectional Respiratory symptoms Yes US
Miech et al. [22] 160 Longitudinal Smoking initiation US
Primack et al. [23] 477 Longitudinal cohort Smoking initiation US
Spindle et al. [24] 145 Longitudinal Smoking initiation US
Unger et al. [25] 130 Longitudinal Smoking initiation US
Warner et al. [26] 87 Cross-sectional Smoking cessation/reduction US
Wills et al. [27] 85 Cross-sectional Respiratory disorder Yes US