Skip to main content

The death of Raphael: a reflection on bloodletting in the Renaissance

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Vasari G (1913) Lives of the most eminent painters, sculptors and architects Newly translation by Gaston du C de Vere. Macmillan and the Medici society, London, p 247

    Google Scholar 

  2. Campori G (1863) Notizie inedite di Raffaello da Urbino. Carlo Vincenzi, Modena, Modena, p 30

    Google Scholar 

  3. Portiglotti G (1920) La morte di Raffaello. Illustrazione medica italiana 2:23–26

    Google Scholar 

  4. De Vecchi P (1966) L’Opera Completa di Raffaello. Rizzoli, Milan

    Google Scholar 

  5. Fracastoro G (1591) Operum pars prior. François Le Fèvre, Lyon, p 225

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michele Augusto Riva.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of human and animal rights

This article does not contain any study with human and animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent is not applicable.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Riva, M.A., Paladino, M.E., Motta, M. et al. The death of Raphael: a reflection on bloodletting in the Renaissance. Intern Emerg Med 16, 243–244 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Fever
  • Bloodletting
  • Renaissance
  • Raphael
  • History