The study purpose was to analyze current daily and current daily nicotine-containing electronic cigarette (EC) use in the European Union (EU). Special Eurobarometer 429, a cross-sectional survey performed in a representative sample of 28 member states of the EU in November and December of 2014, was analyzed. The prevalence of current daily and current daily nicotine-containing EC use was 1.08% (95% CI 0.95–1.20%) and 1.00% (95% CI 0.88–1.12%), respectively, and was mainly observed in current and former smokers. Minimal current daily (0.08%, 95% CI 0.03–0.12%) and current daily nicotine-containing EC use (0.04%, 95% CI 0.01–0.08%) was observed among never smokers. Smoking cessation with the help of ECs was reported by 47.12% (95% CI 41.28–52.96%) of current daily and 49.14% (95% CI 43.12–55.17%) of current daily nicotine-containing EC users. Additionally, 33.18% (95% CI 27.67–38.69%) and 31.40% (95% CI 25.80–36.99%) reported reduction in smoking consumption, respectively. The strongest correlates of daily EC use were being current and former smokers. In the EU in late 2014, current daily EC use was predominantly observed in current and former smokers and was associated with high self-reported rates of smoking cessation and reduction. Current daily EC use by never smokers was extremely infrequent.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Regan AK, Promoff G, Dube SR, Arrazola R (2013) Electronic nicotine delivery systems: adult use and awareness of the ‘e-cigarette’ in the USA. Tob Control 22:19–23. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050044
King BA, Alam S, Promoff G, Arrazola R, Dube SR (2013) Awareness and ever-use of electronic cigarettes among U.S. adults, 2010–2011. Nicotine Tob Res 15:1623–1627. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntt013
Pepper JK, Brewer NT (2014) Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review. Tob Control 23:375–384. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051122
King BA, Patel R, Nguyen KH, Dube SR (2015) Trends in awareness and use of electronic cigarettes among US adults, 2010–2013. Nicotine Tob Res 17:219–227. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntu191
Dawkins L, Turner J, Roberts A, Soar K (2013) ‘Vaping’ profiles and preferences: an online survey of electronic cigarette users. Addiction 108:1115–1125. doi:10.1111/add.12150
Etter JF, Bullen C (2014) A longitudinal study of electronic cigarette users. Addictive Behav 39:491–494. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.028
Etter JF, Bullen C (2011) Electronic cigarette: users profile, utilization, satisfaction and perceived efficacy. Addiction 106:2017–2028. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03505.x
Farsalinos KE, Romagna G, Tsiapras D, Kyrzopoulos S, Voudris V (2014) Characteristics, perceived side effects and benefits of electronic cigarette use: a worldwide survey of more than 19,000 consumers. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11:4356–4373. doi:10.3390/ijerph110404356
Farsalinos KE, Romagna G, Tsiapras D, Kyrzopoulos S, Spyrou A, Voudris V (2013) Impact of flavour variability on electronic cigarette use experience: an internet survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10:7272–7282. doi:10.3390/ijerph10127272
Siegel MB, Tanwar KL, Wood KS (2011) Electronic cigarettes as a smoking-cessation: tool results from an online survey. Am J Prev Med 40:472–475. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2010.12.006
Caponnetto P, Campagna D, Cibella F, Morjaria JB, Caruso M, Russo C, Polosa R (2013) EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT) as tobacco cigarettes substitute: a prospective 12-month randomized control design study. PLoS One 8:e66317. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066317
Bullen C, Howe C, Laugesen M, McRobbie H, Parag V, Williman J, Walker N (2013) Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 382:1629–1637. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61842-5
McRobbie H, Bullen C, Hartmann-Boyce J, Hajek P (2014) Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12:CD010216. doi:10.1002/14651858
Hartmann-Boyce J, McRobbie H, Bullen C, Begh R, Stead LF, Hajek P (2016) Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9:CD010216
Khoudigian S, Devji T, Lytvyn L, Campbell K, Hopkins R, O’Reilly D (2016) The efficacy and short-term effects of electronic cigarettes as a method for smoking cessation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Int J Public Health 61:257–267. doi:10.1007/s00038-016-0786-z
Rahman MA, Hann N, Wilson A, Mnatzaganian G, Worrall-Carter L (2015) E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 10:e0122544. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122544
Farsalinos KE, Romagna G, Tsiapras D, Kyrzopoulos S, Voudris V (2013) Evaluating nicotine levels selection and patterns of electronic cigarette use in a group of “vapers” who had achieved complete substitution of smoking. Subst Abuse 7:139–146. doi:10.4137/SART.S12756
Amato MS, Boyle RG, Levy D (2016) How to define e-cigarette prevalence? Finding clues in the use frequency distribution. Tob Control 25(e1):e24–e29. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052236
Hitchman SC, Brose LS, Brown J, Robson D, McNeill A (2015) Associations between e-cigarette type, frequency of use, and quitting smoking: findings from a longitudinal online panel survey in Great Britain. Nicotine Tob Res 17:1187–1194. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntv078
European Commission. Eurobarometer 429 (2014) Attitudes of Europeans towards tobacco and electronic cigarettes. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_429_en.pdf. Accessed 13 Sep 2016
Farsalinos KE, Poulas K, Voudris V, Le Houezec J (2016) Electronic cigarette use in the European Union: analysis of a representative sample of 27 460 Europeans from 28 countries. Addiction 111:2032–2040. doi:10.1111/add.13506
Vardavas CI, Filippidis FT, Agaku IT (2015) Determinants and prevalence of e-cigarette use throughout the European Union: a secondary analysis of 26 566 youth and adults from 27 countries. Tob Control 24:442–448. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051394
European Commission. Eurobarometer 385 (2012) Attitudes of Europeans towards tobacco. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_385_en.pdf. Accessed 13 Sep 2016
Pechacek TF, Nayak P, Gregory KR, Weaver SR, Eriksen MP (2016) The potential that electronic nicotine delivery systems can be a disruptive technology: results from a national survey. Nicotine Tob Res 18:1989–1997. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntw102
Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) UK (2016) Use of electronic cigarettes (vapourisers) among adults in Great Britain. http://ash.org.uk/download/use-of-electronic-cigarettes-among-adults-in-great-britain/. Accessed 09 Oct 2016
Brown J, West R, Beard E, Michie S, Shahab L, McNeill A (2014) Prevalence and characteristics of e-cigarette users in Great Britain: findings from a general population survey of smokers. Addict Behav 39:1120–1125. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.03.009
Tan AS, Bigman CA (2014) E-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness: prevalence and associations with smoking-cessation outcomes. Am J Prev Med 47:141–149. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.02.011
Filippidis FT, Laverty AA, Gerovasili V, Vardavas CI (2017) Two-year trends and predictors of e-cigarette use in 27 European Union member states. Tob Control 26:98–104. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052771
Farsalinos KE, Romagna G, Voudris V (2015) Factors associated with dual use of tobacco and electronic cigarettes: a case control study. Int J Drug Policy 26:595–600. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.01.006
Etter JF (2016) A longitudinal study of cotinine in long-term daily users of e-cigarettes. Drug Alcohol Depend 2016(160):218–221. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.01.003
Ooms GI, Bosdriesz JR, Portrait FR, Kunst AE (2016) Sociodemographic differences in the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems in the European Union. Nicotine Tob Res 18:724–729. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntv215
Zhuang YL, Cummins SE, Sun J Y, Zhu SH (2016) Long-term e-cigarette use and smoking cessation: a longitudinal study with US population. Tob Control 25(Suppl 1):i90–i95. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053096
No funding was provided for this study.
Conflict of interest
For KF and VV, their institution was remunerated by two e-cigarette companies for two unpublished studies in 2013 (>36 months ago), while two studies were funded by the non-profit association AEMSA in 2013 and one by the non-profit association Tennessee Smoke-Free Association in 2015. JLH has received speaker honorarium and consultancy fees from Johnson & Johnson, Novartis, Pfizer, and Pierre Fabre.
Statement of human and animal rights
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
For this type of study formal consent is not required.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Farsalinos, K.E., Poulas, K., Voudris, V. et al. Prevalence and correlates of current daily use of electronic cigarettes in the European Union: analysis of the 2014 Eurobarometer survey. Intern Emerg Med 12, 757–763 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11739-017-1643-7
- Electronic cigarettes
- European Union
- Smoking cessation