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Apoplastic reactive oxygen species mediated escape growth of root during illumination in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seedlings

Abstract

Besides gravity, roots are also guided by light to grow deep into the soil and sensitivity of roots to light is evidently due to presence of photoreceptors like phototropins. Such light-induced root growth (light-escape growth) presumably involves reactive oxygen species (ROS). Present study explores the possibility of ROS action in this event during early seedling growth of Vigna radiata based on pharmacological evidences. Germinated (20 h) seeds were incubated in dark or light in presence of general ROS scavenger (propyl gallate), specific scavengers of \({\text{O}}_{2}^{ \cdot \; - }\) (copper chloride; CuCl2), H2O2 [dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and potassium iodide (KI)] and ˙OH (sodium benzoate) and ROS-producing enzyme inhibitors [zinc chloride (ZnCl2), inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX); diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC), inhibitor of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), inhibitor of peroxidase]. Light-induced root growth of 3-day seedlings diminished significantly in case of all the treatments suggesting for a positive role of ROS in light-escape growth. This is supported by elevated level of apoplastic ROS in light grown roots as evident from ROS-specific staining [nitroblue tetrazolium chloride (NBT) for \({\text{O}}_{2}^{ \cdot \; - }\) and 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) for H2O2] and spectrophotometric estimation of apoplastic ROS production (\({\text{O}}_{2}^{ \cdot \; - }\) and H2O2). In addition, higher activity of membrane bound NOX (producing \({\text{O}}_{2}^{ \cdot \; - }\)) and apoplastic class III peroxidase (Prx, producing ˙OH) in light grown roots further corroborates the view that apoplastic ROS (initiated with NOX-generated \({\text{O}}_{2}^{ \cdot \; - }\), which is converted, either spontaneously or by the activity of SOD, to H2O2 and further metabolized by Prx to ˙OH that participates in cell wall relaxation required for growth) is instrumental in light-escape growth of roots.

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Acknowledgements

One of the authors (AM) gratefully recognizes financial support for the present investigation from University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India as BSR Fellowship [vide letter F. No. 25-1/2014-15(BSR)/220/2009/(BSR)]. The authors also acknowledge the Departmental research facilities created under UGC-SAP and DST-FIST programs.

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Correspondence to Rup Kumar Kar.

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Dey, T., Das, S., Majumdar, A. et al. Apoplastic reactive oxygen species mediated escape growth of root during illumination in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seedlings. Acta Physiol Plant 43, 145 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-021-03313-2

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Keywords

  • Light-escape root growth
  • NADPH oxidase
  • Peroxidase
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Superoxide dismutase