The plastidial delta-12 fatty acid desaturase (FAD6) plays a key role in linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) biosynthesis. Perilla (Perilla frutescens) is an important oilseed crop with the highest ALA level. Here, using RACE PCR, two FAD6 cDNAs were cloned from perilla: the 1726 bp PfFAD6 and the 1881 bp PfFAD6’. PfFAD6 encodes a 443 aa protein, while PfFAD6’ is a pseudogene caused by premature stop codon mutation. N-terminal of PfFAD6 has a chloroplast transit peptide. PfFAD6 harbors an omega-6 FAD conserved domain, 2 trans-membrane helices and 3 histidine boxes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed some important evolutionary features of PfFAD6 and other plant FAD6 genes. Heterologous yeast expression showed that protein encoded by PfFAD6 can catalyze the production of LA. PfFAD6 was expressed in various organs at different levels, and responded to multiple biotic/abiotic stresses. The qRT-PCR assay and fluorescence imaging showed the correlation of PfFAD6 transcripts and photosynthetic activity under Sclerotinia infection. This study will lay a foundation for further function study of PfFAD6 in quality improvement in oilseed crops and plant-stress response.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Baker EJ, Miles EA, Burdge GC, Yaqoob P, Calder PC (2016) Metabolism and functional effects of plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids in humans. Prog Lipid Res 64:30–56
Chi XY, Yang QL, Pan LJ, Chen MN, He YA, Yang Z, Yu SL (2011) Isolation and characterization of fatty acid desaturase genes from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Plant Cell Rep 30:1393–1404
Dong CJ, Cao N, Zhang ZG, Shang QM (2016) Characterization of the fatty acid desaturase genes in cucumber: structure, phylogeny, and expression patterns. PLoS ONE 11:0149917
Falcone DL, Gibson S, Lemieux B, Somerville C (1994) Identification of a gene that complements an Arabidopsis mutant deficient in chloroplast omega-6 desaturase activity. Plant Physiol 106:1453–1459
Hitz WD, Carlson TJ, Booth JR, Kinney AJ, Stecca KL, Yadav NS (1994) Cloning of a higher-plant plastid omega-6 fatty-acid desaturase cDNA and its expression in a cyanobacterium. Plant Physiol 105:635–641
Katoh K, Standley DM (2013) MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Mol Biol Evol 30:772–780
Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K (2016) MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 33:1870–1874
Lee KR, Lee Y, Kim EH, Lee SB, Roh KH, Kim JB, Kang HC, Kim HU (2016) Functional identification of oleate 12-desaturase and omega-3 fatty acid desaturase genes from Perilla frutescens var. frutescens. Plant Cell Rep 35:2523–2537
Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2-ΔΔCT method. Methods 25:402–408
Lu Y, Chi X, Li Z, Yang Q, Li F, Liu S, Gan Q, Qin S (2010) Isolation and characterization of a stress-dependent plastidial delta(12) fatty acid desaturase from the antarctic microalga Chlorella vulgaris NJ-7. Lipids 45:179–187
Mei J, Ding Y, Li Y, Tong C, Du H, Yu Y, Wan H, Xiong Q, Yu J, Liu S, Li J, Qian W (2016) Transcriptomic comparison between Brassica oleracea and rice (Oryza sativa) reveals diverse modulations on cell death in response to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Sci Rep-UK 6:33706
Mikami K, Murata N (2003) Membrane fluidity and the perception of environmental signals in cyanobacteria and plants. Prog Lipid Res 42:527–543
Mikkilineni V, Rocheford TR (2003) Sequence variation and genomic organization of fatty acid desaturase-2 (fad2) and fatty acid desaturase-6 (fad6) cDNAs in maize. Theor Appl Genet 106:1326–1332
Miquel M, Browse J (1992) Arabidopsis mutants deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis-biochemical and genetic characterization of a plant oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine desaturase. J Biol Chem 267:1502–1509
Nishiuchi T, Iba K (1998) Roles of plastid omega-3 fatty acid desaturases in defense response of higher plants. J Plant Res 111:481–486
Ohlrogge J, Browse J (1995) Lipid biosynthesis. Plant Cell 7:957–970
Rao S, Abdel-Reheem M, Bhella R, McCracken C, Hildebrand D (2008) Characteristics of high alpha-linolenic acid accumulation in seed oils. Lipids 43:749–755
Teixeira MC, Coelho N, Olsson ME, Brodelius PE, Carvalho IS, Brodelius M (2009) Molecular cloning and expression analysis of three omega-6 desaturase genes from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.). Biotechnol Lett 31:1089–1101
Upchurch RG (2008) Fatty acid unsaturation, mobilization, and regulation in the response of plants to stress. Biotechnol Lett 30:967–977
Vijayan P, Browse J (2002) Photoinhibition in mutants of Arabidopsis deficient in thylakoid unsaturation. Plant Physiol 129:876–885
Xue Y, Yin N, Chen B, Liao F, Win AN, Jiang J, Wang R, Jin X, Lin N, Chai Y (2017a) Molecular cloning and expression analysis of two FAD2 genes from chia (Salvia hispanica). Acta Physiol Plant 39:95
Xue Y, Zhang X, Wang R, Chen B, Jiang J, Win AN, Chai Y (2017b) Cloning and expression of Perilla frutescens FAD2 gene and polymorphism analysis among cultivars. Acta Physiol Plant 39:84
Xue Y, Chen B, Win AN, Fu C, Lian J, Liu X, Wang R, Zhang X, Chai Y (2018) Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family from two omega-3 sources, Salvia hispanica and Perilla frutescens: Cloning, characterization and expression. PLoS ONE 13:0191432
Zhang JT, Zhu JQ, Zhu Q, Liu H, Gao XS, Zhang HX (2009) Fatty acid desaturase-6 (Fad6) is required for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochem Bioph Res Co 390:469–474
Zhang H, Jiang C, Ren J, Dong J, Shi X, Zhao X, Wang X, Wang J, Zhong C, Zhao S, Liu X, Gao S, Yu H (2020) An advanced lipid metabolism system revealed by transcriptomic and lipidomic analyses plays a central role in peanut cold tolerance. Front Plant Sci 11:1110
Zhu S, Zhu Z, Wang H, Wang L, Cheng L, Yuan Y, Zheng Y, Li D (2018) Characterization and functional analysis of a plastidial FAD6 gene and its promoter in the mesocarp of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Sci Hortic-Amsterdam 239:163–170
This research was funded by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFD0100506), National Natural Science Foundation of China (32001441; 31871549), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (XDJK2020C038), Chongqing Research Program of Basic Research and Frontier Technology (cstc2015jcyjBX0143).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Communicated by Y. Wang.
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Xue, Y., Jiang, H., Chen, B. et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of two plastidial Δ12 fatty acid desaturase cDNAs from Perilla frutescens. Acta Physiol Plant 43, 103 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-021-03277-3
- Perilla frutescens
- Transcriptional expression
- Yeast expression