Analysis of main metabolisms during nitrogen deficiency and compensation in rice

  • Tianhua Shen
  • Qiangqiang Xiong
  • Lei Zhong
  • Xiang Shi
  • Caohao Cao
  • Haohua He
  • Xiaorong ChenEmail author
Original Article


Compensatory effect is observed during the process of gradual adaptation of plants to abnormal environmental conditions; nitrogen fertilizer compensation has been extensively studied in rice production in recent years. However, metabolite production of the phenomenon has not been studied clearly. In this study, we used super hybrid early rice as the material and planted it in a barrel. Experiments were performed under two conditions of treatment, namely, CK (normal quantities of nitrogen fertilizer distribution at different growth stages) and T1 (nitrogen deficiency at tillering stage and compensatory application at young panicle differentiation stage). Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) was used to analyze metabolomics of rice leaves under conditions of nitrogen deficiency and compensation after the same period of CK treatment. Results showed that there was a significant difference between T1 and CK metabolites. The levels of stress-resistant substances and amino acid substitution product nitrogen deficiency increased under T1 treatment compared to CK, and the metabolites were consumed as the energy source. However, after compensation, the levels of the stress response products returned to normal, lipids were synthesized in large quantities, and fatty acid accumulation had increased.


Nitrogen deficiency compensation Rice Growth metabolomics 



Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry


Principal component analysis


Soil and plant analyzer development


Nitrate reductase


Glutamine synthase


Quality control


Relative standard deviation


Total ion current


Variable importance in the projection


Orthogonal partial least squares method


Differential metabolites



This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant no. (31360309 and 30860136), Jiangxi Science and Technology Support Project of China Grant no. (2010BNA03600).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11738_2019_2860_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (31 kb)
The differential metabolites at tillering stage between CK and T1 (XLSX 32 kb)
11738_2019_2860_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (65 kb)
The differential metabolites at young panicle stage between CK and T1 (XLSX 66 kb)
11738_2019_2860_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (10 kb)
T1common differential metabolite ratio between tillering stage and young panicle stage (XLSX 9 kb)


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Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tianhua Shen
    • 1
  • Qiangqiang Xiong
    • 1
  • Lei Zhong
    • 1
  • Xiang Shi
    • 1
  • Caohao Cao
    • 1
  • Haohua He
    • 1
  • Xiaorong Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Education, College of AgronomyJiangxi Agricultural UniversityNanchangChina

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