The rhizosphere microbial community response to a bio-organic fertilizer: finding the mechanisms behind the suppression of watermelon Fusarium wilt disease
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We aimed to evaluate the capability of bio-organic fertilizer suppressing watermelon Fusarium wilt disease, compare the variations of the rhizosphere bacterial and fungal community compositions after treatment with different fertilizers, and explore mechanisms causing disease suppression in rhizosphere microbial community. A rhizobacterium (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JDF35) was identified to control watermelon Fusarium wilt disease. Bio-organic fertilizer JDF35 (BOF) was generated by inoculating JDF35 into the organic fertilizer (OF) composed of cow and chicken manure compost (1:50 v/w). A three successive growing season pot experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of BOF compared with OF and chemical fertilizer (CF). Next-generation sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform was used to investigate the variations in rhizosphere microbial community composition. The growth of the watermelon plants, soil pH, and available N, P and K concentrations were the highest in the BOF treatment. The Fusarium wilt incidence in the BOF treatment was lower than that in the CF and OF treatment, and the differences for disease incidence were significant (P < 0.001). The diversity of the rhizosphere bacterial community was higher, and that of the fungal was lower in the BOF treatment. Most importantly, the BOF treatment had lowest abundances of Fusarium. The application of the BOF altered the composition of rhizosphere microbial community, suppressing Fusarium wilt disease and promoting plant growth.
KeywordsWatermelon Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Illumina MiSeq platform Fusarium wilt disease suppression Bio-organic fertilizer
We thank Institute of agro-products quality safety and testing research for generously providing FON.
Compliance with ethical standards
This work was financially supported in part by grants from the Independent Innovation of Science and Technology Program of Shanxi Province (2015zzcx-22), Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Science Scientific and Technological Research Projects (YGG1414), and the Youth's Foundational Research Project of Shanxi Province (201701D221169).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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