Brief heat events (1–3 days, >30 °C) commonly reduce wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain size and consequently yield. To identify mechanisms of tolerance to such short heat events, 36 wheat genotypes were treated under day/night temperatures of 37 °C/27 °C for 3-days in a growth chamber, at 10 days after anthesis, and a range of developmental, chlorophyll and yield-related traits monitored. The degree of flag leaf chlorophyll loss during the treatment was the variable that showed the highest correlation to grain weight loss (r = 0.63; p < 0.001), identifying chlorophyll stability during this brief period as a potential determinant or indicator of grain weight stability under heat. Variables summarizing the combined during- and post-heat chlorophyll losses showed similar or lower correlations with heat tolerance of grain filling, despite the fact that genotypes varied in their ability to resume normal chlorophyll loss rates after the heat treatment. Additionally, heat tolerance of grain size showed no correlation with grain filling duration or traits relating to utilization of stem carbon reserves under heat stress. Measurement of chlorophyll loss over a forecasted heat wave was thereby identified as a potential basis for developing tools to help breeders select heat tolerant genotypes.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abbad H, El Jaafari S, Bort Pie J, Araus Ortega JL (2004) Comparison of flag leaf and ear photosynthesis with biomass and grain yield of durum wheat under various water conditions and genotypes. Agronomie 24:19–28
Alghabari F, Lukac M, Jones H, Gooding M (2014) Effect of Rht alleles on the tolerance of wheat grain set to high temperature and drought stress during booting and anthesis. J Agron Crop Sci 200:36–45
Araus J, Brown H, Febrero A, Bort J, Serret M (1993) Ear photosynthesis, carbon isotope discrimination and the contribution of respiratory CO2 to differences in grain mass in durum wheat. Plant Cell Environ 16:383–392
Bidinger F, Musgrave R, Fischer R (1977) Contribution of stored pre-anthesis assimilate to grain yield in wheat and barley. Nature 270:431–433
Blum A, Sinmena B, Mayer J, Golan G, Shpiler L (1994) Stem reserve mobilisation supports wheat-grain filling under heat stress. Funct Plant Biol 21:771–781
Borrell AK, Incoll L, Dalling MJ (1993) The influence of the Rht 1 and Rht 2 alleles on the deposition and use of stem reserves in wheat. Ann Bot 71:317–326
Butler D, Cullis B, Gilmour A, Gogel B (2009) ASReml-R, reference manual. Technical report, Queensland Department of Primary Industries
Ehdaie B, Alloush G, Waines J (2008) Genotypic variation in linear rate of grain growth and contribution of stem reserves to grain yield in wheat. Field Crops Res 106:34–43
Ellis M, Spielmeyer W, Gale K, Rebetzke G, Richards R (2002) “ Perfect” markers for the Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b dwarfing genes in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 105:1038–1042
Functional Genomics Group UoB (2015). CerealsDB. http://www.cerealsdb.uk.net/cerealgenomics/CerealsDB/kasp_download.php?URL=. Accessed 17 Jan 2016
Gale M, Youssefian S (1985) Dwarfing genes in wheat. In: Russell G (ed) Progress in plant breeding I. Butterworths, London, pp 1–35
Jenner C (1994) Starch synthesis in the kernel of wheat under high temperature conditions. Funct Plant Biol 21:791–806
Kumari M, Singh V, Tripathi R, Joshi A (2007) Variation for staygreen trait and its association with canopy temperature depression and yield traits under terminal heat stress in wheat. In: Buck HT, Nisi JE, Salomón N (eds) Wheat production in stressed environments. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 357–363
Lewis S, Faricelli M, Appendino M, Valárik M, Dubcovsky J (2008) The chromosome region including the earliness per se locus Eps-Am 1 affects the duration of early developmental phases and spikelet number in diploid wheat. J Exp Bot 59:3595–3607
Lopes MS, Reynolds MP (2012) Stay-green in spring wheat can be determined by spectral reflectance measurements (normalized difference vegetation index) independently from phenology. J Exp Bot 63:3789–3798
Maphosa L, Collins N, Taylor J, Mather D (2014) Post-anthesis heat and a Gpc-B1 introgression have similar but non-additive effects in bread wheat. Funct Plant Biol 41:1002–1008
Mason RE, Mondal S, Beecher FW, Pacheco A, Jampala B, Ibrahim AMH, Hays DB (2010) QTL associated with heat susceptibility index in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under short-term reproductive stage heat stress. Euphytica 174:423–436
Ortiz R, Sayre KD, Govaerts B, Gupta R, Subbarao G, Ban T, Hodson D, Dixon JM, Iván OM (2008) Climate change: can wheat beat the heat? Agric Ecosyst Environ 126:46–58
Pinto RS, Reynolds MP, Mathews KL, McIntyre CL, Olivares-Villegas J-J, Chapman SC (2010) Heat and drought adaptive QTL in a wheat population designed to minimize confounding agronomic effects. Theor Appl Genet 121:1001–1021
Rasmusson D, McLean I, Tew T (1979) Vegetative and grain-filling periods of growth in barley. Crop Sci 19:5–9
Revelle W (2015) Psych: procedures for Personality and Psychological Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA, Version = 1.5.8. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/psych/index.html. Accessed 17 Jan 2016
Sadras VO, Vadez V, Purushothaman R, Lake L, Marrou H (2015) Unscrambling confounded effects of sowing date trials to screen for crop adaptation to high temperature. Field Crops Res 177:1–8
Saini H, Aspinall D (1982) Abnormal sporogenesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) induced by short periods of high temperature. Ann Bot 49:835–846
Sharma R (1992) Duration of the vegetative and reproductive period in relation to yield performance of spring wheat. Eur J Agron 1:133–137
Shirdelmoghanloo H, Taylor JD, Lohraseb I, Rabie H, Brien C, Timmins A, Martin P, Mather DE, Emebiri L, Collins NC (2016) A QTL on the short arm of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3B affects the stability of grain weight in plants exposed to a brief heat shock early in grain filling. BMC Plant Biol 16:100. doi:10.1186/s12870-016-0784-6
Stone P, Nicolas M (1995a) Effect of timing of heat stress during grain filling on two wheat varieties differing in heat tolerance. I. Grain growth. Funct Plant Biol 22:927–934
Stone P, Nicolas M (1995b) A survey of the effects of high temperature during grain filling on yield and quality of 75 wheat cultivars. Aust J Agric Res 46:475–492
Talukder A, McDonald GK, Gill GS (2014) Effect of short-term heat stress prior to flowering and early grain set on the grain yield of wheat. Field Crops Res 160:54–63
Tambussi EA, Bort J, Guiamet JJ, Nogués S, Araus JL (2007) The photosynthetic role of ears in C3 cereals: metabolism, water use efficiency and contribution to grain yield. Crit Rev Plant Sci 26:1–16
Tashiro T, Wardlaw I (1990) The response to high temperature shock and humidity changes prior to and during the early stages of grain development in wheat. Funct Plant Biol 17:551–561
R Core Team (2015) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org. Accessed 17 Jan 2016
Telfer P, Edwards J, Kuchel H, Reinheimer J, Bennett D (2013) Heat stress tolerance of wheat. http://www.grdc.com.au/Research-and-Development/GRDC-Update-Papers/2013/02/Heat-stress-tolerance-of-wheat. Accessed 17 Jan 2016
Thomas H, Howarth CJ (2000) Five ways to stay green. J Exp Bot 51:329–337
Vignjevic M, Wang X, Olesen J, Wollenweber B (2014) Traits in spring wheat cultivars associated with yield loss caused by a heat stress episode after anthesis. J Agron Crop Sci 201:32–48
Wardlaw I, Wrigley C (1994) Heat tolerance in temperate cereals: an overview. Funct Plant Biol 21:695–703
Worland AJ (1996) The influence of flowering time genes on environmental adaptability in European wheats. Euphytica 89:49–57
Yang J, Sears R, Gill B, Paulsen G (2002) Quantitative and molecular characterization of heat tolerance in hexaploid wheat. Euphytica 126:275–282
This project was funded by the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC; project UA00123), with additional support from the Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics (ACPFG). ACPFG is funded mainly by the GRDC, the Government of South Australia and the University of Adelaide and was also supported by the Australian Research Council and the University of South Australia during the time of this study. We thank staff of The Plant Accelerator®, Australian Plant Phenomics Facility, for plant care and growth facilities. The Plant Accelerator® is supported by the Australian Government under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and the University of Adelaide. We thank Susanne Dreisigacker Gina Brown-Guedira for access to Rht gene KASP assays pre-publication, Kelvin Khoo and Melissa Garcia for assistance with the KASP platform, and the following people for supplying seed: Michael Francki, Dion Bennett, Dan Mullan, Bertus Jacobs, Hugh Wallwork, Brett Lobsey and Livinus Emebiri.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have not conflict of interest.
Communicated by R Baczek-Kwinta.
About this article
Cite this article
Shirdelmoghanloo, H., Lohraseb, I., Rabie, H.S. et al. Heat susceptibility of grain filling in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) linked with rapid chlorophyll loss during a 3-day heat treatment. Acta Physiol Plant 38, 208 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-016-2208-5
- Heat tolerance
- Chlorophyll content