The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of I. pseudacorus L., an ornamental macrophyte of great potential for phytoremediation, to tolerate and accumulate Cr and Zn. Plants were grown in nutritive solution with ZnCl2 or CrCl3·6H2O at 0, 10, 50, 100, and 200 μg ml−1 for 5 weeks; all survived and continued growing. The accumulation of Cr and Zn increased with increasing supply in all plant tissues, to reach 59.97 mg Cr and 25.64 mg Zn in roots. Leaves retained a remarkable amount of Zn (14.2 mg). Growth inhibition reached 65% and 31% (dry weight) in response to Cr and Zn, respectively. The root:shoot dry matter partitioning (R/S) increased 80% at 100 μg ml−1 CrCl3. The most marked alterations in mineral content were in roots, where both metals decreased Al, Ca, Mg, Mn and S, and increased P concentration. No effect was noted on either leaf chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics (Fv/Fm and ΦPSII), or photosynthetic pigment content, signifying that the light phase of photosynthesis was not impaired. Carbon isotope composition (δ13C) was only slightly heavier, indicating that the reduction of carbon fixation was not the main cause for growth decrease. This was attributed to the restricted mineral uptake and to the increased demand of carbohydrates of damaged roots. Biomass allocation to rhizomes (Cr) or roots (Zn) contributes to heavy metal tolerance by limiting transpiration and increasing metal–storing tissues and the surface for water and cation uptake. This species is a good candidate for Cr rhizofiltration and Zn phytoextraction.
Heavy metal Abiotic stress Toxicity Phytoremediation Macrophyte Isotope
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This study was part of the International Cooperation European Project MEDINDUS, EC Contract No INCO-CT-2004-509159. Experiments were conducted in the experimental field services (Servei de Camps Experimentals) of the Universitat de Barcelona. Sample digestion and determination of element content were performed in the technical services (Serveis Científicotècnics) of the Universitat de Barcelona. We wish to thank their personnel for their collaboration and advice.
Baker AJM, Brooks RR (1989) Terrestrial higher plants which hyperaccumulate metallic elements—a review of their distribution, ecology and phytochemistry. Biorecovery 1:81–126Google Scholar
Bakker RR, Elbersen HW (2005) Managing ash content and quality in herbaceous biomass: an analysis from plant to product. In: 14th European biomass conference and exhibition, 17–21 October 2005, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
Belmont MA, Metcalfe CD (2003) Feasibility of using ornamental plants (Zantedeschia aethiopica) in subsurface flow treatment wetlands to remove nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand and nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants—a laboratory-scale study. Ecol Eng 21:233–247. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2003.10.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Janik E, Maksymiec W, Mazur R, Garstka M, Gruszecki WI (2010) Structural and functional modifications of the major light-harvesting complex II in cadmium- or copper-treated Secale cereale. Plant Cell Physiol 51:1330–1340. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcq093PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krugh B, Bischham L, Miles D (1994) The solid-state chlorophyll meter, a novel instrument for rapidly and accurately determining the chlorophyll concentration in seedling leaves. Maize Genet Coop News Lett 68:25–27Google Scholar
Küpper H, Küpper F, Spiller M (1996) Environmental relevance of heavy metal-substituted chlorophylls using the example of water plants. J Exp Bot 47:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larue C, Korboulewsky N, Wang RY, Mévy JP (2010) Depollution potential of three macrophytes: exudated, wall-bound and intracellular peroxidase activities plus intracellular phenol concentrations. Bioresour Technol 101:7951–7957. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.05.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lichtenthaler HK (1987) Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods Enzymol 148:350–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manceau A, Nagy KL, Marcus MA, Lanson M, Geoffroy N, Jacquet T, Kirpichtchikova T (2008) Formation of metallic copper nanoparticles at the soil–root interface. Environ Sci Technol 42:1766–1772. doi:10.1021/es072017oPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
Oláh V, Lakatos G, Bertók C, Kanalas P, Szőllősi E, Kis J, Mészáros I (2010) Short-term chromium (VI) stress induces different photosynthetic responses in two duckweed species, Lemna gibba L. and Lemna minor L. Photosynthetica 48:513–520. doi:10.1007/s11099-010-0068-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polyák K, Hlavay J (1999) Environmental mobility of trace metals in sediments collected in the Lake Balaton. Fresenius J Anal Chem 363:587–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prasad MNV (2004) Heavy metal stress in plants. From biomolecules to ecosystems. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
Prasad DDK, Prasad ARK (1987) Altered delta-aminolevulinic-acid metabolism by lead and mercury in germinating seedlings of bajra (Pennisetum typhoideum). J Plant Phys 127:241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prasad MNV, Strzałka K (2002) Physiology and biochemistry of metal toxicity and tolerance in plants. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
Price AH, Steele KA, Gorham J, Bridges JM, Moore BJ, Evans JL, Richardson P, Jones RGW (2002) Upland rice grown in soil-filled chambers and exposed to contrasting water-deficit regimes. I. Root distribution, water use and plant water status. Field Crops Res 76:11–24. doi:10.1016/S0378-4290(02)00012-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qian JH, Zayed A, Zhu YL, Yu M, Terry N (1999) Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: III. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species. J Environ Qual 28:1448–1455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Samecka-Cymerman A, Kempers AJ (2001) Concentrations of heavy metals and plant nutrients in water, sediments and aquatic macrophytes of anthropogenic lakes (former open cut brown coal mines) differing in stage of acidification. Sci Total Environ 281:87–98. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00838-5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang X, Liu P, Yang Y, Chen W (2007) Phytoremediation of urban wastewater by model wetlands with ornamental hydrophytes. J Environ Sci 19:902–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhou YQ, Huang SZ, Yu SL, Gu JG, Zhao JZ, Han YL, Fu JJ (2010) The physiological response and sub-cellular localization of lead and cadmium in Iris pseudacorus L. Ecotoxicol 19:69–76. doi:10.1007/s10646-009-0389-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar