Collective behavior based on self-organization has been observed in populations of animals from insects to vertebrates. These findings have motivated engineers to investigate approaches to control autonomous multi-robot systems able to reproduce collective animal behaviors, and even to collectively interact with groups of animals. In this article, we show collective decision making by a group of autonomous robots and a group of zebrafish, leading to a shared decision about swimming direction. The robots can also modulate the collective decision-making process in biased and non-biased experimental setups. These results demonstrate the possibility of creating mixed societies of vertebrates and robots in order to study or control animal behavior.
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This work was supported by the EU-ICT Project ASSISIbf, No. 601074. The information provided is the sole responsibility of the authors and does not reflect the European Commission’s opinion. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that might be made of data appearing in this publication. We thank Leo Cazenille and Philippe Rétornaz for their assistance during the software and firmware implementation. We would also like to gratefully acknowledge Daniel Burnier and Norbert Crot for their technical support during the design and production of the robotic devices.
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Bonnet, F., Gribovskiy, A., Halloy, J. et al. Closed-loop interactions between a shoal of zebrafish and a group of robotic fish in a circular corridor. Swarm Intell 12, 227–244 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11721-017-0153-6
- Animal–robot interaction
- Multi-agent systems
- Collective behavior
- Mixed societies