Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 361–371 | Cite as

A multi-attribute decision making approach of mix design based on experimental soil characterization

  • Amit K. Bera
  • Tanmoy MukhopadhyayEmail author
  • Ponnada J. Mohan
  • Tushar K. Dey
Research Article


The clay mineral composition is one of the major factors that governs the physical properties of silty sand subgrade. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of mineral composition is essential to predict the optimum engineering properties of the soil, which is generally characterized by different indices like maximum dry density (MDD), California bearing ratio (CBR), unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and free swelling index (FSI). In this article, a novel multiattribute decision making (MADM) based approach of mix design has been proposed for silty sand–artificial clay mix to improve the characteristic strength of a soil subgrade. Experimental investigation has been carried out in this study to illustrate the proposed approach of selecting appropriate proportion for the soil mix to optimize all the above mentioned engineering properties simultaneously. The results show that a mix proportion containing approximately 90% silty sand plus 10% bentonite soil is the optimal combination in context to the present study. The proposed methodology for optimal decision making to choose appropriate combination of bentonite and silty sand is general in nature and therefore, it can be extended to other problems of selecting mineral compositions.


silty sand bentonite soil soil mix design multi-attribute decision making 


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Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amit K. Bera
    • 1
  • Tanmoy Mukhopadhyay
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ponnada J. Mohan
    • 1
  • Tushar K. Dey
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Science & TechnologyThe ICFAI UniversityDehradunIndia
  2. 2.College of EngineeringSwansea UniversitySwanseaUK
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technical Teachers’ Training and Research (NITTTR)KolkataIndia

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