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Progress in use of surfactant in nearly static conditions in natural gas hydrate formation

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Abstract

Natural gas hydrate is an alternative energy source with a great potential for development. The addition of surfactants has been found to have practical implications on the acceleration of hydrate formation in the industrial sector. In this paper, the mechanisms of different surfactants that have been reported to promote hydrate formation are summarized. Besides, the factors influencing surfactant-promoted hydrate formation, including the type, concentration, and structure of the surfactant, are also described. Moreover, the effects of surfactants on the formation of hydrate in pure water, brine, porous media, and systems containing multiple surfactants are discussed. The synergistic or inhibitory effects of the combinations of these additives are also analyzed. Furthermore, the process of establishing kinetic and thermodynamic models to simulate the factors affecting the formation of hydrate in surfactant-containing solutions is illustrated and summarized.

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Abbreviations

n:

Oxygen-oxygen logarithm of water molecules

a:

Activity

ΔH :

Enthalpy of formation of a hydrate/J

T:

Hydrate formation temperature in the presence of an inhibitor/K

T 0 :

Hydrate formation temperature of pure water/K

R :

Universal gas constant

x :

Mole fraction

ϕ :

Twist angle between the farthest O-H vectors of the two water molecules

w:

Water

a:

Acetone

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Doctoral Research Start-up Fund Project of Liaoning Province, China (No. 2019-BS-159).

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Pan, Z., Wu, Y., Shang, L. et al. Progress in use of surfactant in nearly static conditions in natural gas hydrate formation. Front. Energy 14, 463–481 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-020-0675-2

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