Renewable energy resources, policies and gaps in BRICS countries and the global impact

Abstract

This paper presents comparative yet extensive analysis of existing non-conventional renewable resources, energy policies and gaps in BRICS countries. An intelligent transformation to green economy to maintain natural resources is noted. Brazil has stable energy policies and is the leading producer of biofuels following hydropower until 2014 but supported wind and solar power development by tendering specific tariffs for energy generation from solar and wind. Russia needs improvement in its legal and regulatory framework with more incentives in energy policies. China is improving upon wind and hydropower but it needs strong policy measures to put cap on increased CO2 emissions. India needs revision in energy policy and requires extra incentives and consumer specific energy policies for research-infrastructure and energy generation technologies. South Africa requires lessons to increase renewable energy and reduce coal mining. Moreover, BRICS countries need to redefine their energy policies based upon their existing geographical, economical, societal and environmental conditions which will help in shaping global energy policies and more financial stability. This paper recognizes the potential of BRICS to reshape the global system paralleled with minimizing CO2 emissions. The concerted role of BRICS needs to be recognized as the leading contributor of global renewable capacity where the developed world is geared and busy to address the environmental issues.

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Abbreviations

BRICS:

Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa

JNNSM:

Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission

GDP:

Gross Domestic Production

GHG:

Green House Gas

MNRE:

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

NCRES:

Non-Conventional Renewable Energy Sources

PROINFA:

Program of Incentive for Alternative Electricity Sources

REI4P:

Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Program

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Acknowledgements

The research in this paper was supported by the UGC (University Grants Commission, New Delhi) fellowship to LP.

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Correspondence to Kavita Shah.

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Pathak, L., Shah, K. Renewable energy resources, policies and gaps in BRICS countries and the global impact. Front. Energy 13, 506–521 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0601-z

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Keywords

  • BRICS
  • CO2 emissions
  • energy
  • policies
  • renewable