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Power sources and electrical recharging strategies for implantable medical devices

Abstract

Implantable medical devices (IMDs) are critically requested for the survival of patients subject to certain serious diseases such as bradycardia, fibrillation, diabetes, and disability, etc. Appropriate working of an active implantable medical device (IMD) heavily relies on the continuous supply of electricity. In this sense, long-term powering and recharging of an IMD via a highly safe, efficient and convenient way is, therefore, extremely important in clinics. Several conventional batteries, such as lithium cell, nuclear cell and bio-fuel cell, etc., have been developed to power IMDs. Meanwhile, the recharge of IMD from outside of the human body is also under investigation. In this paper, some of the most typical IMD batteries are reviewed. Their advantages and disadvantages are compared. In addition, several emerging innovations to recharge or directly drive the implanted batteries, including electromagnetic energy transmission, piezoelectric power generation, thermoelectric devices, ultrasonic power motors, radio frequency recharging and optical recharging methods, etc., are also discussed. Some fundamental and practical issues thus involved are summarized, and future prospects in this area are made.

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Correspondence to Jing Liu.

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Wei, X., Liu, J. Power sources and electrical recharging strategies for implantable medical devices. Front. Energy Power Eng. China 2, 1–13 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-008-0016-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-008-0016-3

Keywords

  • implantable medical device
  • power source
  • rechargeable battery
  • micro/nano device
  • lithium cell
  • bio-fuel cell
  • nuclear cell
  • electromagnetic power
  • piezoelectric power
  • thermoelectric device
  • ultrasound motor
  • radio frequency technique