Quantitative analysis of planation surfaces of the upper Yangtze River in the Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

  • Fenliang Liu
  • Hongshan Gao
  • Baotian Pan
  • Zongmeng Li
  • Huai Su
Research Article
  • 2 Downloads

Abstract

Identification of the planation surfaces (PSs) is key for utilizing them as a reference in studying the long-term geomorphological evolution of the Upper Yangtze River Basin in the Sichuan-Yunnan region, Southwest China. Using a combined method of DEM-based fuzzy logic and topographic and river profiles analysis and based on a comprehensive analysis of four morphometric parameters: slope, curvature, terrain ruggedness index, and relative height, we established the relevant fuzzy membership functions, and then calculated the membership degree (MD) of the study area. Results show that patches with a MD >80% and an area >0.4 km2 correspond well to the results of Google Earth and field investigation, representing the PS remnants. They consist of 1764 patches with an altitude, area, mean slope, and relief of mostly 2000–2500 m above sea level (asl), 0–10 km2, 4°–9°, 0–500 m, respectively, covering 9.2% of the study area’s landscape, dipping to southeast, decreasing progressively from northwest to southeast in altitude, and with no clear relation between each patch’s altitude and slope, or relief. All these results indicate that they are remnants of once regionally continuous PSs which were deformed by both the lower crust flow and the faults in upper crust, and dissected by the network of Upper Yangtze River. Additionally, topographic and river profiles analysis show that three PSs (PS1–PS3) well developed along the main valleys in the Yongren-Huili region, indicating several phases of uplift then planation during the Late Cenozoic era. Based on the incision amount deduced from projection of relict river profiles on PSs, together with erosion rates, breakup times of the PS1, PS2, and PS3 were estimated to be 3.47 Ma, 2.19 Ma, and 1.45 Ma, respectively, indicating appearance of modern Upper Yangtze River valley started between the Pliocene to early Pleistocene.

Keywords

planation surface fuzzy logic topographic analysis river profile analysis Upper Yangtze River Southwest China 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We should like to thank Dongsheng GUAN for his assistance during fieldwork. We acknowledge Xiaofei HU and Sean F. GALLEN for their help in conducting river profile analyses, Wentao QI for his help in terrain analysis.We thank Paul BESSIN from Le Mans University and other anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and helpful suggestions. We are grateful to Edward Derbyshire for editing language for the manuscript. This research was supported financially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41471008 and 41730637) and the United Fund of the National Scientific Foundation of China and Yunnan Province (U0933604), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (lzujbky-2013–272).

References

  1. Adams G F (1975). Planation surfaces: peneplains, pediplains, and etchplains. Benchmark Paper in Geology 22. Stroudsburg PA: Dowden, Hutchington and Ross, 476Google Scholar
  2. Ahnert F (1998). Introduction to Geomorphology. London: Amold Bascom F (1921). Cycles of erosion in the Piedmont province of Pennsylvania. J Geol, 29(6): 540–559Google Scholar
  3. Bessin P, Guillocheau F, Robin C, Schroëtter J M, Bauer H (2015). Planation surfaces of the Armorican Massif (western France): denudation chronology of a Mesozoic land surface twice exhumed in response to relative crustal movements between Iberia and Eurasia. Geomorphology, 233: 75–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bishop P (2007). Long-term landscape evolution: linking tectonics and surface processes. Earth Surf Process Landf, 32(3): 329–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonow J M (2004). Palaeosurfaces and palaeovalleys on North Atlantic previously glaciated passive margins: reference forms for conclusions on uplift and erosion. Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologiGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonow J M, Japsen P, Lidmar-Bergström K, Chalmers J A, Pedersen A K (2006a). Cenozoic uplift of Nuussuaq and Disko, West Greenland—Elevated erosion surfaces as uplift markers of a passive margin. Geomorphology, 80(3–4): 325–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonow J M, Japsen P, Nielsen T F (2014). High-level landscapes along the margin of southern East Greenland—A record of tectonic uplift and incision after breakup in the NEAtlantic. Global Planet Change, 116(2): 10–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bonow J M, Lidmar-Bergström K, Japsen P (2006b). Palaeosurfaces in central West Greenland as reference for identification of tectonic movements and estimation of erosion. Global Planet Change, 50(3–4): 161–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bosch G V, Van Den Driessche J, Babault J, Robert A, Carballo A, Le Carlier C, Loget N, Prognon C, Wyns R, Baudin T (2016). Peneplanation and lithosphere dynamics in the Pyrenees. C R Geosci, 348: 194–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burrough P A, McDonell R A (1998). Principles of geographical information systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 190Google Scholar
  11. Calvet M, Gunnell Y, Farines B (2015). Flat-topped mountain ranges: their global distribution and value for understanding the evolution of mountain topography. Geomorphology, 241: 255–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen F B (1992). Hengduan event: an important tectonic event of the Late Cenozoic in Eastern Asian. Mountain Research, 10(1): 195–202Google Scholar
  13. Clark M K, House M A, Royden L H, Whipple K X, Burchfiel B C, Zhang X, Tang W (2005). Late Cenozoic uplift of southeastern Tibet. Geology, 33(6): 525–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark M K, Royden L H (2000). Topographic ooze: building the eastern margin of Tibet by lower crustal flow. Geology, 28(8): 703–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clark M K, Royden L H, Whipple K X, Burchfiel B C, Zhang X, Tang W (2006). Use of a regional, relict landscape to measure vertical deformation of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. J Geophys Res, 111(F3): F03002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clark M K, Schoenbohm L M, Royden L H, Whipple K X, Burchfiel B C, Zhang X, Tang W, Wang E, Chen L (2004). Surface uplift, tectonics, and erosion of eastern Tibet from large-scale drainage patterns. Tectonics, 23(1): TC1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clift P D, Sun Z (2006). The sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the Yinggehai–Song Hong basin and the southern Hainan margin, South China Sea: implications for Tibetan uplift and monsoon intensification. J Geophys Res, 111(B6): B06405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coltorti M, Firuzabadi D, Borri A, Fantozzi P, Pieruccini P (2015). Planation surfaces and the long-term geomorphological evolution of Ethiopia. In: Billi P, eds. Landscapes and Landforms of Ethiopia. Springer Netherlands, 51(6): 117–136Google Scholar
  19. Cui Z J, Li D W, Feng J L, Liu G N, Li H J (2001a). Covered karst, weathering crust and karst planation surface. Sci China Earth Sci, 31 (6): 510–520Google Scholar
  20. Cui Z J, Li D W, Liu G N, Feng J L, Zhang W (2001b). The properties of the lateritic karst weathering crust and the formation environment of planation surfaces in Tibet, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Hunan province. Sci China Earth Sci, 31: 134–141Google Scholar
  21. Davis W M (1889a). The rivers and valleys of Pennsylvania. National Geographic Society, 1: 183–253Google Scholar
  22. Davis W M (1889b). Topographic development of the Triassic formation of the Connecticut Valley. American Journal of Science, 3rd Ser., 37: 423–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis W M (1899). The geographical cycle. Geogr J, 14(5): 481–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Feng J L, Cui Z J, Zhang W, Li D W, Liu G N, Zhu L P (2004). Genesis of the layered landform surfaces in Dongchuan, Yunan Province. JMt Sci, 22(2): 165–174Google Scholar
  25. Flint J J (1974). Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude, and discharge. Water Resour Res, 10(5): 969–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Foster M A, Kelsey H M (2012). Knickpoint and knickzone formation and propagation, South Fork Eel River, northern California. Geosphere, 8(2): 403–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Guillocheau F, Simon B, Baby G, Bessin P, Robin C, Dauteuil O (2018). Planation surfaces as a record of mantle dynamics: the case example of Africa. Gondwana Res, 53(1): 82–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hack J T (1973). Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index. J Res USGeol Surv, 1(4): 421–429Google Scholar
  29. Haider V L, Dunkl I, Eynatten H V, Ding L, Frei D, Zhang L Y (2013). Cretaceous to Cenozoic evolution of the northern Lhasa Terrane and the Early Paleogene development of peneplains at Nam Co, Tibetan Plateau. J Asian Earth Sci, 70–71(1): 79–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haider V L, Kropácek J, Dunkl I, Wagner B, von Eynatten H (2015). Identification of peneplains by multi-parameter assessment of digital elevation models. Earth Surf Process Landf, 40(11): 1477–1492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harkins N, Kirby E, Heimsath A, Robinson R, Reiser U (2007). Transient fluvial incision in the headwaters of the Yellow River, northeastern Tibet, China. J Geophys Res Earth Surf, 112(F3), https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JF000570
  32. He Z, Zhang X, Bao S, Qian Y S, Sheng Y Y, Liu X T, He X L, Yang X C, Zhao J X, Liu R, Lu C Y (2015). Multiple climatic cycles imprinted on regional uplift-controlled fluvial terraces in the lower Yalong River and Anning River, SETibetan Plateau. Geomorphology, 250: 95–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hetzel R, Dunkl I, Haider V, Strobl M, Von Eynatten H, Ding L, Frei D (2011). Peneplain formation in southern Tibet predates the India-Asia collision and plateau uplift. Geology, 39(10): 983–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Huang M H (1992). Research on the stratified landform in the Southwest of China. Journal of Suzhou Railway Teachers College, 9(4): 57–63 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  35. Huggett R J (2016). Fundamentals of Geomorphology. London: Routledge, 436Google Scholar
  36. Japsen P, Bonow J M, Green P F, Chalmers J A, Lidmar-Bergström K (2009). Formation, uplift and dissection of planation surfaces at passive continental margins—A new approach. Earth Surf Process Landf, 34(5): 683–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jarvis A, Reuter H I, Nelson A, Guevara E (2008). Hole-filled SRTM for the globe Version 4. CGIAR-CSI SRTM 90m Database. Available online: http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org Google Scholar
  38. Johansson M (1999). Analysis of digital elevation data for palaeosurfaces in south-western Sweden. Geomorphology, 26(4): 279–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jolivet M, Ritz J F, Vassallo R, Larroque C, Braucher R, Todbileg M, Chauvet A, Sue C, Arnaud N, de Vicente RArzhanikova A, Arzhanikov S (2007). Mongolian summits: an uplifted, flat, old but still preserved erosion surface. Geology, 35(10): 871–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kennan L, Lamb S, Hoke L (1997). High-altitude palaeosurfaces in the Bolivian Andes: evidence for late Cenozoic surface uplift. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ, 120(1): 307–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. King L C (1962). Morphology of the Earth. Edinburgh: Oliver and BoydGoogle Scholar
  42. Kirby E, Regalla C, Ouimet W B, Bierman P R (2010). Reconstructing temporal variation in fault slip from footwall topography: an example from Saline valley, California, 2010 Fall Meeting, American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  43. Kirby E, Whipple K X (2012). Expression of active tectonics in erosional landscapes. J Struct Geol, 44: 54–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kühni A, Pfiffner O A (2001). The relief of the Swiss Alps and adjacent areas and its relation to lithology and structure: topographic analysis from a 250-m DEM. Geomorphology, 41(4): 285–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Legrain N, Stüwe K, Wölfler A (2014). Incised relict landscapes in the Eastern Alps. Geomorphology, 221: 124–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lei C, Ren J Y, Sternai P, Fox M, Willett S, Xie X N, Clift P D, Liao J H, Wang Z F (2015). Structure and sediment budget of Yinggehai–Song Hong basin, South China Sea: implications for Cenozoic tectonics and river basin reorganization in Southeast Asia. Tectonophysics, 655: 177–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Li C, Jiang X, Gong W, Li D, Li C (2018). Surface uplift of the Central Yunnan Plateau since the Pliocene. Geol J, 53: 386–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Li H, Huang X Y, Deng Q L, Kusky T M, Cai X B (2012). Mapping of planation surfaces in the southwest region of Hubei Province, China—Using the DEM-derived painted relief model. J Earth Sci, 23(5): 719–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li J J (1999). In memory of Davisian theory of erosion cycle and peneplain: a centurial study in China. Journal of Lanzhou University (Natural Sciences), 35(3): 157–163Google Scholar
  50. Li J J, Shi Y F, Li B Y (1995). Uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and global change. Lanzhou University Press, 1451–1452Google Scholar
  51. Li J J, Xie S Y, Kuang M S (2001). Geomorphic evolution of the Yangtze Gorges and the time of their formation. Geomorphology, 41(2–3): 125–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lidmar-Bergström K, Bonow J M, Japsen P (2013). Stratigraphic landscape analysis and geomorphological paradigms: Scandinavia as an example of Phanerozoic uplift and subsidence. Global Planet Change, 100: 153–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liu-Zeng J, Tapponnier P, Gaudemer Y, Ding L (2008). Quantifying landscape differences across the Tibetan plateau: implications for topographic relief evolution. J Geophys Res Earth Surf, 113 (F04018): 1–26Google Scholar
  54. Ma Z H, Li X M, Guo B H, Yu H, Ye X Y, Song C H, Li J J (2016). Extraction and analysis of Maxianshan planation surfaces in northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Acta Geogr Sin, 71(3): 400–411Google Scholar
  55. Miller S R, Sak P B, Kirby E, Bierman P R (2013). Neogene rejuvenation of central Appalachian topography: evidence for differential rock uplift from stream profiles and erosion rates. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 369–370: 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Monkhouse F J, Wilkinson H R (1952). Population Maps and Diagrams. Maps and Diagrams, Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  57. Niemann J D, Gasparini N M, Tucker G E, Bras R L (2001). A quantitative evaluation of Playfair’s law and its use in testing longterm stream erosion models. Earth Surf Process Landf, 26(12): 1317–1332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Olaya V (2009). Basic land-surface parameters. In: Hengl T, Reuter H I,eds. Developments in Soil Science, 33: 141–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pan B T, Hu Z B, Wang J P, Vandenberghe J, Hu X F, Wen Y H, Li Q, Cao B (2012). The approximate age of the planation surface and the incision of the Yellow River. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 356: 54–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Peckham S D, Hengl T, Evans J, Wilson J P, Gould M (2011). Profile, plan and streamline curvature: a simple derivation and applications. In: Proceedings of the International Society for Geomorphometry, Redlands, CA.27–30Google Scholar
  61. Pike R J (2000). Geomorphometry: diversity in quantitative surface analysis. Prog Phys Geogr, 24(1): 1–20Google Scholar
  62. Qian Y, Xiong L, Li J, Tang G (2016). Landform planation index extracted from DEMs: a case study in Ordos Platform of China. Chin Geogr Sci, 26(3): 314–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Reuter H I, Nelson A, Jarvis A (2007). An evaluation of void-filling interpolation methods for SRTM data. Int J Geogr Inf Sci, 21(9): 983–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rigon R, Rinaldo A, Rodriguez-Iturbe I (1994). On landscape selforganization. J Geophys Res, 99(11): 911–971Google Scholar
  65. Riley S J, DeGloria S D, Elliot R (1999). A terrain ruggedness index that quantifies topographic heterogeneity. Intermt J Sci, 5(1–4): 23–27Google Scholar
  66. Ringrose P S, Migon P (1997). Analysis of digital elevation data for the Scottish Highlands and recognition of pre-Quaternary elevated surfaces. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ, 120(1): 25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rowberry M D (2012). A comparison of three terrain parameters that may be used to identify denudation surfaces within a GIS: a case study from Wales, United Kingdom. Comput Geosci, 43: 147–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rowberry M D, Brewer P A, Macklin M G (2007).The number, form and origin of sub-horizontal surfaces in north Ceredigion, Wales UK.Norwegian Journal of Geology/Norsk Geologisk Forening, 87(1–2): 207–222Google Scholar
  69. Royden L H, Burchfiel B C, King R W, Wang E, Chen Z, Shen F, Liu Y (1997). Surface deformation and lower crustal flow in Eastern Tibet. Science, 276(5313):788–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schoenbohm L M, Whipple K X, Burchfiel B C, Chen L (2004). Geomorphic constraints on surface uplift, exhumation, and plateau growth in the Red River region, Yunnan Province, China. Geol Soc Am Bull, 116(7): 895–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sevon W D, Potter N Jr, Crowl G (1983). Appalachian peneplains: an historical review. Earth Sci Hist, 2(2): 156–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shackleton R, Chang C (1988). Cenozoic uplift and deformation of the Tibetan Plateau: the geomorphological evidence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 327(1594): 365–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shen J, Wang S M, Wang Y, Qiang X K, Xiao H F, Xiao X Y (2010). Uplift events of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau and environmental evolution of the southwest monsoon since 2.7 Ma, recorded in a long lake sediment core from Heqing, China. Quat Int, 218(1–2): 67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Strobl M, Hetzel R, Ding L, Zhang L, Hampel A (2010). Preservation of a large-scale bedrock peneplain suggests long-term landscape stability in southern Tibet. Z Geomorphol, 54(4): 453–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Su H, Ming Q Z, Pan B T, Gao H S, Zhang W X, Dong M, Shi Z T (2013). The analysis and discussions on the chronological frame of Jinshajiang River valley-drainage. J Mt Sci, 31(6): 685–692Google Scholar
  76. Van der Beek P, van Melle J, Guillot S, Pêcher A, Reiners P W, Nicolescu S, Latif M (2009). Eocene Tibetan Plateau remnants preserved in the northwest Himalaya. Nat Geosci, 2(5): 364–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Twidale C R(1976). On the survival of paleoforms. Am J Sci, 276(1): 77–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Vandenberghe J (2016). From planation surfaces to river valleys. BSGLg, 67: 93–106Google Scholar
  79. Veselský M, Bandura P, Burian L, Harciníková T, Bella P (2015). Semiautomated recognition of planation surfaces and other flat landforms: a case study from the Aggtelek Karst, Hungary. Open Geosciences, 7 (1): 799–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wang E, Burchfiel B C (2000). Late Cenozoic to Holocene deformation in southwestern Sichuan and adjacent Yunnan, China, and its role in formation of the southeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau. Geol Soc Am Bull, 112(3): 413–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang E, Burchfiel B C, Royden L H, Chen L, Chen J, Li W, Chen Z (1998). Late Cenozoic Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang, Red River, and Dali fault systems of southwestern Sichuan and central Yunnan, China. Spec Pap Geol Soc Am, 327: 1–108Google Scholar
  82. Wang X, Lu H, Vandenberghe J, Zheng S, van Balen R (2012). Late Miocene uplift of the NETibetan Plateau inferred from basin filling, planation and fluvial terraces in the Huang Shui catchment. Global Planet Change, 88–89: 10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wang Y, Pan B, Gao H, Liu Y (2005). Planation surface extraction and quantitative analysis based on high-resolution digital elevation models. International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 8: 5369–5371Google Scholar
  84. Whipple K X, Dibiase R A, Ouimet W B, Forte A M (2017). Preservation or piracy: diagnosing low-relief, high-elevation surface formation mechanisms. Geology, 45(1): 91–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Widdowson M (1997). The geomorphological and geological importance of palaeosurfaces. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ, 120(1): 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wobus C W, Crosby B T, Whipple K X (2006). Hanging valleys in fluvial systems: controls on occurrence and implications for landscape evolution. J Geophys Res, 111(F2): F02017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Xie M (1990). Neotectonic uplift velocity and type along the Changjiang River during Quaternary. Quaternary Sciences, 4: 308–315 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  88. Xiong L Y, Tang G A, Zhu A X, Qian Y Q (2017). A peak-cluster assessment method for the identification of upland planation surfaces. Int J Geogr Inf Sci, 31(2): 387–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yang R, Willett S D, Goren L (2015). In situ low-relief landscape formation as a result of river network disruption. Nature, 520(7548): 526–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zadeh L A (1968). Fuzzy algorithms. Inf Control, 12(2): 94–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zárate M, Folguera A (2014). Planation surfaces of Central Western Argentina. In: Rabassa J, Ollier C, eds. Gondwana Landscapes in Southern South America. Springer Netherlands, 365–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zevenbergen L W, Thorne C R (1987). Quantitative analysis of land surface topography. Earth Surf Process Landf, 12(1): 47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zhang K, Huang Y K (1995). Researches on the planation surfaces in north Guangdong. Trop Geogr, 15(4): 295–305Google Scholar
  94. Zhang Y C, Li J J, Zhu J J, Kuang M S, Chen Y (1999). Studies on development of Yuanmou basin and valleys during Late Cenozoic. Journal of Lanzhou University (Natural Sciences), 35(1): 199–205Google Scholar
  95. Zheng H, Clift P D, Wang P, Tada R, Jia J, He M, Jourdan F (2013). Pre-Miocene birth of the Yangtze River. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 110(19): 7556–7561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zhou S, Xu L, Cui J, Zhang X, Zhao J (2005). Geomorphologic evolution and environmental changes in the Shaluli Mountain region during the Quaternary. Chin Sci Bull, 50(1): 52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhu R X, Potts R, Pan Y X, Lü L Q, Yao H T, Deng C L, Qin H F (2008). Paleomagnetism of the Yuanmou Basin near the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and its constraints on late Neogene sedimentation and tectonic rotation. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 272(1–2): 97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fenliang Liu
    • 1
  • Hongshan Gao
    • 1
  • Baotian Pan
    • 1
  • Zongmeng Li
    • 2
  • Huai Su
    • 3
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Western China’s Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education), College of Earth and Environmental SciencesLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Geographic SciencesXinyang Normal UniversityXinyangChina
  3. 3.College of Tourism and Geography ScienceYunnan Normal UniversityKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations