Advertisement

Frontiers of Earth Science

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 565–578 | Cite as

Sediment transport in headwaters of a volcanic catchment—Kamchatka Peninsula case study

  • Sergey R. Chalov
  • Anatolii S. Tsyplenkov
  • Jan Pietron
  • Aleksandra S. Chalova
  • Danila I. Shkolnyi
  • Jerker Jarsjö
  • Michael Maerker
Research Article

Abstract

Due to specific environmental conditions, headwater catchments located on volcanic slopes and valleys are characterized by distinctive hydrology and sediment transport patterns. However, lack of sufficient monitoring causes that the governing processes and patterns in these areas are rarely well understood. In this study, spatiotemporal water discharge and sediment transport from upstream sources was investigated in one of the numerous headwater catchments located in the lahar valleys of the Kamchatka Peninsula Sukhaya Elizovskaya River near Avachinskii and Koryakskii volcanoes. Three different subcatchments and corresponding channel types (wandering rivers within lahar valleys, mountain rivers within volcanic slopes and rivers within submountain terrains) were identified in the studied area. Our measurements from different periods of observations between years 2012–2014 showed that the studied catchment was characterized by extreme diurnal fluctuation of water discharges and sediment loads that were influenced by snowmelt patterns and high infiltration rates of the easily erodible lahar deposits. The highest recorded sediment loads were up to 9∙104 mg/L which was related to an increase of two orders of magnitude within a one day of observations. Additionally, to get a quantitative estimate of the spatial distribution of the eroded material in the volcanic substrates we applied an empirical soil erosion and sediment yield model–modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE). The modeling results showed that even if the applications of the universal erosion model to different non-agricultural areas (e.g., volcanic catchments) can lead to irrelevant results, the MUSLE model delivered might be acceptable for non-lahar areas of the studied volcanic catchment. Overall the results of our study increase our understanding of the hydrology and associated sediment transport for prediction of risk management within headwater volcanic catchments.

Keywords

sediment transport volcanoes lahars Kamchatka Peninsula MUSLE erosion 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was conducted within the project of Russian Scientific Foundation No 14-27-00083. The field research was additionally funded by the following projects: Russian Fund for Basic research project No 15-05-05515, 16-55-53116 and 16-35-00567; PEOPLE MARIE CURIE ACTIONS International Research Staff Exchange Scheme Call: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES Fluvial processes and sediment dynamics of slope channel systems: Impacts of socio economic-and climate change on river system characteristics and related services. The Swedish partners were funded from the Swedish Research Council Formas (project 2012-790). We thank all participants of the field work in 2012–2014 and especially are grateful to Simone Mori who designed Fig. 2.

References

  1. Alexeevsky N I, Chalov R S, Berkovich K M, Chalov S R (2013). Channel changes in largest Russian rivers: natural and anthropogenic effects. International Journal of River Basin Management, 11(2): 175–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appel K, Mueller E N, Francke T, Opp C (2006). Soil-erosion modelling along badland hillslopes in a dryland environment of NE Spain. Geophys Res Abstr, 8: 02874Google Scholar
  3. Ballantyne C K, McCann S B (1980). Short-lived damming of a high- Arctic ice-marginal stream, Ellesmere Island, N. W. T., Canada. J Glaciol, 25: 487–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blaszczynski J (2003). Estimating watershed runoff and sediment yield using a GIS interface to curve number and MUSLE models. Soils and Geology, Resources Notes No. 66, National Science and Technology Center, DenverGoogle Scholar
  5. Boardman J (1996). Soil erosion by water: problems and prospects for research. In: Anderson M G, Brooks S M, eds. Advances in Hillslope Processes. Chichester: Wiley, 489–505Google Scholar
  6. Bøggild C E (2000). Preferential flow and melt water retention in cold snow packs in West-Greenland. Hydrol Res, 31(4–5): 287–300Google Scholar
  7. Borselli L, Cassi P, Torri D (2008). Prolegomena to sediment and flow connectivity in the landscape: a GIS and field numerical assessment. Catena, 75: 268–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carranza E J M, Castro O T (2006). Predicting lahar-inundation zones: case study in West Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Nat Hazards, 37(3): 331–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chalov S R, Leman V N, Chalova A S (2014). In-channel processes hazards and salmon habitats at the Kamchatka Peninsula. Moscow: VNIRO (in Russian)Google Scholar
  10. Chandramohan T, Venkatesh B, Balchand A N (2015). Evaluation of three soil erosion models for small watersheds. Aquatic Procedia, 4: 1227–1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cronin S J, Neall V E, Lecointre J A, Palmer A S (1999). Dynamic interactions between lahars and stream flow: a case study from Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand. Geol Soc Am Bull, 111(1): 28–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Doyle E E, Cronin S J, Thouret J C (2011). Defining conditions for bulking and debulking in lahars. Geol Soc Am Bull, 123(7–8): 1234–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eiriksdottir E S, Louvat P, Gislason S R, Óskarsson N, Hardardóttir J (2008). Temporal variation of chemical and mechanical weathering in NE Iceland: evaluation of a steady-state model of erosion. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 272(1–2): 78–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ermakova A S (2008). Correspondence of longitudinal profiles and vertical riverbed deformations with the riverbed types on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Geomorphology RAS, 4: 65–74 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  15. Erskine W D, Mahmoudzadeh A, Myers C (2002). Land use effects on sediment yields and soil loss rates in small basins of Triassic sandstone near Sydney, NSW, Australia. Catena, 49(4): 271–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gerdel RW (1954). The transmission of water through snow. Eos (Wash DC), 35(3): 475–485Google Scholar
  17. Gran K B, Montgomery D R (2005). Spatial and temporal patterns in fluvial recovery following volcanic eruptions: channel response to basin-wide sediment loading at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Geol Soc Am Bull, 117(1): 195–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hayes S K, Montgomery D R, Newhall C G (2002). Fluvial sediment transport and deposition following the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo. Geomorphology, 45(3–4): 211–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hock R (1999). A distributed temperature-index ice-and snowmelt model including potential direct solar radiation. J Glaciol, 45(149): 101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jaramillo F (2007). Estimating and modeling soil loss and sediment yield in the Maracas-St. Joseph River Catchment with empirical models (RUSLE and MUSLE) and a physically based model (Erosion 3D). Thesis (MSc), Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, McGill University, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  21. Jensen J R (2000). Remote Sensing of the Environment: An Earth Resource Perspective. New Jersey: Prentice HallGoogle Scholar
  22. Kilgour G, Manville V, Della Pasqua F, Graettinger A, Hodgson K A, Jolly G E (2010). The 25 September 2007 eruption of Mount Ruapehu, New Zealand: directed ballistics, surtseyan jets, and ice-slurry lahars. J Volcanol Geotherm Res, 191(1): 1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kuksina L V, Chalov S R (2012). The suspended sediment discharge of the rivers running along territories of contemporary volcanism in Kamchatka. Geogr Nat Resour, 33(1): 67–73 (English Translation of Geografiya I Prirodnye Resursy)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lavigne F, Thouret J C, Voight B, Suwa H, Sumaryono A (2000). Lahars at Merapi volcano, Central Java: an overview. J Volcanol Geotherm Res, 100(1–4): 423–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Major J J, Pierson T C, Dinehart R L, Costa J E (2000). Sediment yield following severe volcanic disturbance–A two-decade perspective from Mount St. Helens. Geology, 28(9): 819–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Manville V, Hodgson K A, Houghton B F, Key J R H, White J D L (2000). Tephra, snow and water: complex sedimentary responses at an active snow-capped stratovolcano, Ruapehu, New Zealand. Bull Volcanol, 62(4–5): 278–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marenina T U, Sirin A N, Timerbaeva K M (1962). Koryakskii volcano on Kamchatka Peninsula. Proc. Lab. Volcanology. 1962. No 22. P. 67–130Google Scholar
  28. Mitasova H, Hofierka J, Zlocha M, Iverson L R (1996). Modelling topographic potential for erosion and deposition using GIS. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 10(5): 629–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mouri G, Ros C F, Chalov S R (2014). Characteristics of suspended sediment and river discharge during the beginning of snowmelt in volcanically active mountainous environment. Geomorphology, 213: 266–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Neitsch S L, Arnold J G, Kiniry J R, Williams J R, King K W (2005). SWAT theoretical documentation. Soil and Water Research Laboratory: Grassland, 494: 234–235Google Scholar
  31. Oguchi T, Saito K, Kadomura H, Grossman M (2001). Fluvial geomorphology and paleohydrology in Japan. Geomorphology, 39 (1–2): 3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Oliveira A H, da Silva M A, Silva M L N, Curi N, Neto G K, de Freitas D A F (2013). Development of topographic factor modeling for application in soil erosion models. In: Soriano M C H, ed. Soil Processes and Current Trends in Quality Assessment. InTech, 111–138Google Scholar
  33. Pellerin B A, Saraceno J F, Shanley J B, Sebestyen S D, Aiken G R, Wollheim W M, Bergamaschi B A (2012). Taking the pulse of snowmelt: in situ sensors reveal seasonal, event and diurnal patterns of nitrate and dissolved organic matter variability in an upland forest stream. Biogeochemistry, 108(1–3): 183–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pierson T C, Janda R J, Thouret J C, Borrero C A (1990). Perturbation and melting of snow and ice by the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, and consequent mobilization, flow and deposition of lahars. J Volcanol Geotherm Res, 41(1): 17–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pietron J, Jarsjö J, Romanchenko A O, Chalov S R (2015). Model analyses of the contribution of in-channel processes to sediment concentration hysteresis loops. J Hydrol (Amst), 527: 576–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ponomareva V, Melekestsev I, Braitseva O, Churikova T, Pevzner M, Sulerzhitsky L (2007). Late Pleistocene–Holocene Volcanism on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Northwest Pacific Region. In: Eichelberger J, Gordeev E, Izbekov P, Kasahara M, Lees J, eds. Volcanism and Subduction: The Kamchatka Region. Washington D.C.: American Geophysical Union, 165–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rad S D, Allègre C J, Louvat P (2007). Hidden erosion on volcanic islands. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 262(1–2): 109–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Renard K G, Foster G R, Weesies G A, McCool D K, Yoder D C (1997). Predicting Rainfall Erosion Losses—A Guide to Conservation Planning with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Agricultural Handbook 703, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  39. Rodolfo K S, Arguden A T (1991). Rain-lahar generation and sedimentdelifery systems at Mayon volcano, Philippines. In: Fisher R V, Smith G A, eds. Sedimentation in Volcanic Settings. Society for Sedimentary Geology, Tulsa: SEPM Special Publication 45, 59–70Google Scholar
  40. Sadeghi S H R, Gholami L, Khaledi Darvishan A, Saeidi P (2014). A review of the application of the MUSLE model worldwide. Hydrol Sci J, 59(2): 365–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sadeghi S H R, Mizuyama T, Miyata S, Gomi T, Kosugi K, Mizugaki S, Onda Y (2007). Is MUSLE apt to small steeply reforested watershed? J For Res, 12(4): 270–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith G A, Fritz W J (1989). Volcanic influence on terrestrial sedimentation. Geology, 17(4): 375–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Smith G A, Lowe D R (1991). Lahars: Volcano-hydrologic events and deposition in the debris flow–hyperconcentrated flow continuum. In: Fisher R V, Smith G A, eds. Sedimentation in Volcanic Settings. Society for Sedimentary Geology, Tulsa: SEPM Special Publication 45, 59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stott T A, Grove J R (2001). Short-term discharge and suspended sediment fluctuations in the proglacial Skeldal River, nort-east Greenland. Hydrol Processes, 15(3): 407–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sun X, Rosin P L, Martin R R, Langbein F C (2007). Fast and effective feature-preserving mesh denoising. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph, 13(5): 925–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tanarro L M, Andrés N, Zamorano J J, Palacios D, Renschler C S (2010). Geomorphological evolution of a fluvial channel after primary lahar deposition: Huiloac Gorge, Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico). Geomorphology, 122(1–2): 178–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tarboton D (1997). A new method for the determination of flow directions and upslope areas in grid digital elevation models. Water Resour Res, 33(2): 309–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thouret J C, Oehler J F, Gupta A, Solikhin A, Procter J N (2014). Erosion and aggradation on persistently active volcanoes—A case study from Semeru Volcano, Indonesia. Bull Volcanol, 76(10): 857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tweddales S C, Eschlaeger C R, Seybold W F (2000). An Improved Method for Spatial Extrapolation of Vegetative Cover Estimates (USLE/RUSLE C factor) using LCTA and Remotely sensed imagery. Champaign: Construction Engineering Research LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
  50. Vigiak O, Borselli L, Newham L T H, Mcinnes J, Roberts A M (2012). Comparison of conceptual landscape metrics to define hillslope-scale sediment delivery ratio. Geomorphology, 138(1): 74–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Waitt R B (1989). Swift snowmelt and floods (lahars) caused by great pyroclastic surge at Mount St Helens volcano, Washington, 18 May 1980. Bull Volcanol, 52(2): 138–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang L, Liu H (2006). An efficient method for identifying and filling surface depressions in digital elevation models for hydrologic analysis and modelling. Int J Geogr Inf Sci, 20(2): 193–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Williams J R (1975). Sediment-yield prediction with universal equation using runoff energy factor. Present and Prospective Technology for Predicting Sediment Yield and Sources, ARS., S-40: 244–252Google Scholar
  54. Williams J R (1995). The EPIC model: Chapter 25. In: Sing V P, ed. Computer Model of Watershed Hydrology. Highlands Ranch: Water Resources Publications, 909–1000Google Scholar
  55. Wischmeier W H, Smith D D (1960). A universal soil-loss equation to guide conservation farm planning. Trans Int Congr Soil Sci, 7: 418–425Google Scholar
  56. Wischmeier WH, Smith D D (1978). Predicting Rainfall Erosion Losses–A Guide to Conservation Planning. Agricultural Handbook 537, Washington D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Unified National Soil Register http://atlas.mcx.ru/Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergey R. Chalov
    • 1
  • Anatolii S. Tsyplenkov
    • 1
  • Jan Pietron
    • 2
  • Aleksandra S. Chalova
    • 1
  • Danila I. Shkolnyi
    • 1
  • Jerker Jarsjö
    • 2
  • Michael Maerker
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of GeographyM. V. Lomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre for Climate ResearchStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesPavia UniversityPaviaItaly

Personalised recommendations