A study was conducted in four selected upazilas under four coastal districts through participatory rural appraisal (PRA), household survey and monitoring, sampling, focal group discussions, personal interview, onfarm field visits, institutional consultations, and secondary information. The investigation revealed that the valuable natural resources of the whole region are at the verge of serious degradation. Various causes have been identified, which are responsible for degradation of both resources and production environments. These causes include human population growth, coastal embankment, upstream withdrawal of Ganges water, brackish water shrimp farming, salt production, use of agro-chemicals, industrial activities, commercial activities, over-exploitation, etc. The study also showed that the degradation of natural resources is the reason behind the squeezing of historically dominant livelihood opportunities of the coastal communities. The current scenarios of the coastal ecosystem urge necessary steps to be taken for sustainable management of valuable resources and to create alternative livelihood opportunities for the coastal communities.