Frontiers of Materials Science

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 93–105 | Cite as

Stem cell homing-based tissue engineering using bioactive materials

  • Yinxian Yu
  • Binbin Sun
  • Chengqing Yi
  • Xiumei Mo
Review Article


Tissue engineering focuses on repairing tissue and restoring tissue functions by employing three elements: scaffolds, cells and biochemical signals. In tissue engineering, bioactive material scaffolds have been used to cure tissue and organ defects with stem cell-based therapies being one of the best documented approaches. In the review, different biomaterials which are used in several methods to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds were explained and show good properties (biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties etc.) for cell migration and infiltration. Stem cell homing is a recruitment process for inducing the migration of the systemically transplanted cells, or host cells, to defect sites. The mechanisms and modes of stem cell homing-based tissue engineering can be divided into two types depending on the source of the stem cells: endogenous and exogenous. Exogenous stem cell-based bioactive scaffolds have the challenge of long-term culturing in vitro and for endogenous stem cells the biochemical signal homing recruitment mechanism is not clear yet. Although the stem cell homing-based bioactive scaffolds are attractive candidates for tissue defect therapies, based on in vitro studies and animal tests, there is still a long way before clinical application.


stem cell homing cell migration cell proliferation tissue engineering scaffold biochemical signals 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81371979).


  1. [1]
    Nucera S, Biziato D, De Palma M. The interplay between macrophages and angiogenesis in development, tissue injury and regeneration. The International Journal of Developmental Biology, 2011, 55(4–5): 495–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Tanaka H, Sugimoto H, Yoshioka T, et al. Role of granulocyte elastase in tissue injury in patients with septic shock complicated by multiple-organ failure. Annals of Surgery, 1991, 213(1): 81–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Chancellor M B, Huard J, Capelli C, et al. Rapid preparation of stem cell matrices for use in tissue and organ treatment and repair. European Patent, EP1372398, 2013-07-10Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Schrier R W, Parikh C R. Comparison of renal injury in myeloablative autologous, myeloablative allogeneic and nonmyeloablative allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation, 2005, 20(4): 678–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Battiston B, Geuna S, Ferrero M, et al. Nerve repair by means of tubulization: literature review and personal clinical experience comparing biological and synthetic conduits for sensory nerve repair. Microsurgery, 2005, 25(4): 258–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Wiria F E, Leong K F, Chua C K, et al. Poly-e-caprolactone/ hydroxyapatite for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication via selective laser sintering. Acta Biomaterialia, 2007, 3(1): 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Luo Y, Shoichet M S. A photolabile hydrogel for guided three-dimensional cell growth and migration. Nature Materials, 2004, 3(4): 249–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Atala A. Engineering tissues, organs and cells. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 2007, 1(2): 83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Hutmacher D W, Sittinger M, Risbud M V. Scaffold-based tissue engineering: rationale for computer-aided design and solid freeform fabrication systems. Trends in Biotechnology, 2004, 22(7): 354–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Meinel L, Karageorgiou V, Fajardo R, et al. Bone tissue engineering using human mesenchymal stem cells: effects of scaffold material and medium flow. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 2004, 32(1): 112–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Giannobile WV. Periodontal tissue engineering by growth factors. Bone, 1996, 19(1 Suppl): 23–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Ito Y. Tissue engineering by immobilized growth factors. Materials Science and Engineering C, 1998, 6(4): 267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Gallagher K A, Liu Z J, Xiao M, et al. Diabetic impairments in NO-mediated endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and homing are reversed by hyperoxia and SDF-1a. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2007, 117(5): 1249–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Wojakowski W, Kucia M, Milewski K, et al. The role of CXCR4/ SDF-1, CD117/SCF, and c-met/HGF chemokine signalling in the mobilization of progenitor cells and the parameters of the left ventricular function, remodelling, and myocardial perfusion following acute myocardial infarction. European Heart Journal Supplements, 2008, 10(suppl K): K16–K23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Schenk S, Mal N, Finan A, et al. Monocyte chemotactic protein-3 is a myocardial mesenchymal stem cell homing factor. Stem Cells, 2007, 25(1): 245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Chen F M, Zhang M,Wu Z F. Toward delivery of multiple growth factors in tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 2010, 31(24): 6279–6308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Brody S, Pandit A. Approaches to heart valve tissue engineering scaffold design. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 2007, 83B(1): 16–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Gao C, Wan Y, Yang C, et al. Preparation and characterization of bacterial cellulose sponge with hierarchical pore structure as tissue engineering scaffold. Journal of Porous Materials, 2011, 18(2): 139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Jha B S, Ayres C E, Bowman J R, et al. Electrospun collagen: a tissue engineering scaffold with unique functional properties in a wide variety of applications. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2011, (15): 367–371Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Zhu H, Ji J, Shen J. Biomacromolecules electrostatic selfassembly on 3-dimensional tissue engineering scaffold. Biomacromolecules, 2004, 5(5): 1933–1939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    McManus M C, Boland E D, Simpson D G, et al. Electrospun fibrinogen: feasibility as a tissue engineering scaffold in a rat cell culture model. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 2007, 81(2): 299–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Chen Q Z, Thompson I D, Boccaccini A R. 45S5 Bioglass-derived glass–ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 2006, 27(11): 2414–2425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Xu T, Miszuk J M, Zhao Y, et al. Electrospun polycaprolactone 3D nanofibrous scaffold with interconnected and hierarchically structured pores for bone tissue engineering. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2015, 4(15): 2238–2246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Yin G B, Zhang Y Z, Wang S D, et al. Study of the electrospun PLA/silk fibroin-gelatin composite nanofibrous scaffold for tissue engineering. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 2010, 93(1): 158–163Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Sakimura K, Matsumoto T, Miyamoto C, et al. Effects of insulinlike growth factor I on transforming growth factor ß1 induced chondrogenesis of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured in a polyglycolic acid scaffold. Cells, Tissues, Organs, 2006, 183(2): 55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Ma Z, Gao C, Gong Y, et al. Cartilage tissue engineering PLLA scaffold with surface immobilized collagen and basic fibroblast growth factor. Biomaterials, 2005, 26(11): 1253–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Park S A, Lee S H, Kim W D. Fabrication of porous polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite (PCL/HA) blend scaffolds using a 3D plotting system for bone tissue engineering. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 2011, 34(4): 505–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Kim S H, Kwon J H, Chung M S, et al. Fabrication of a new tubular fibrous PLCL scaffold for vascular tissue engineering. Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition, 2006, 17(12): 1359–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Rockwood D N, Preda R C, Yücel T, et al. Materials fabrication from Bombyx mori silk fibroin. Nature Protocols, 2011, 6(10): 1612–1631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Yang J W, Zhang Y F, Sun Z Y, et al. Dental pulp tissue engineering with bFGF-incorporated silk fibroin scaffolds. Journal of Biomaterials Applications, 2015, 30(2): 221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Zhang K, Wang H, Huang C, et al. Fabrication of silk fibroin blended P(LLA-CL) nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 2010, 93(3): 984–993Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Prabhakaran M P, Venugopal J R, Chyan T T, et al. Electrospun biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds for neural tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering Part A, 2008, 14(11): 1787–1797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Courtney T, Sacks M S, Stankus J, et al. Design and analysis of tissue engineering scaffolds that mimic soft tissue mechanical anisotropy. Biomaterials, 2006, 27(19): 3631–3638Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Burdick J A, Anseth K S. Photoencapsulation of osteoblasts in injectable RGD-modified PEG hydrogels for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 2002, 23(22): 4315–4323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Sill T J, von Recum H A. Electrospinning: applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 2008, 29(13): 1989–2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Huang Z M, Zhang Y Z, Kotaki M, et al. A review on polymer nanofibers by electrospinning and their applications in nanocomposites. Composites Science and Technology, 2003, 63(15): 2223–2253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Jin H J, Chen J, Karageorgiou V, et al. Human bone marrow stromal cell responses on electrospun silk fibroin mats. Biomaterials, 2004, 25(6): 1039–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Panseri S, Cunha C, Lowery J, et al. Electrospun micro- and nanofiber tubes for functional nervous regeneration in sciatic nerve transections. BMC Biotechnology, 2008, 8(1): 39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Wang C Y, Liu J J, Fan C Y, et al. The effect of aligned core–shell nanofibres delivering NGF on the promotion of sciatic nerve regeneration. Journal of Biomaterials Science: Polymer Edition, 2012, 23(1–4): 167–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Keshaw H, Thapar N, Burns A J, et al. Microporous collagen spheres produced via thermally induced phase separation for tissue regeneration. Acta Biomaterialia, 2010, 6(3): 1158–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Chun KW, Cho K C, Kim S H, et al. Controlled release of plasmid DNA from biodegradable scaffolds fabricated using a thermallyinduced phase-separation method. Journal of Biomaterials Science: Polymer Edition, 2004, 15(11): 1341–1353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Ma H, Hu J, Ma P X. Polymer scaffolds for small-diameter vascular tissue engineering. Advanced Functional Materials, 2010, 20(17): 2833–2841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    Kim M, Kim G H. Electrohydrodynamic direct printing of PCL/ collagen fibrous scaffolds with a core/shell structure for tissue engineering applications. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2015, 279: 317–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    Lee J W, Choi Y J, Yong W J, et al. Development of a 3D cell printed construct considering angiogenesis for liver tissue engineering. Biofabrication, 2016, 8(1): 015007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    Goole J, Amighi K. 3D printing in pharmaceutics: A new tool for designing customized drug delivery systems. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2016, 499(1–2): 376–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    Beltrami A P, Barlucchi L, Torella D, et al. Adult cardiac stem cells are multipotent and support myocardial regeneration. Cell, 2003, 114(6): 763–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    Daley G Q, Scadden D T. Prospects for stem cell-based therapy. Cell, 2008, 132(4): 544–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    Sieveking D P, Ng M K C. Cell therapies for therapeutic angiogenesis: back to the bench. Vascular Medicine, 2009, 14(2): 153–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Bajada S, Mazakova I, Richardson J B, et al. Updates on stem cells and their applications in regenerative medicine. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 2008, 2(4): 169–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    Teo A K K, Vallier L. Emerging use of stem cells in regenerative medicine. The Biochemical Journal, 2010, 428(1): 11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    Quesenberry P J, Becker P S. Stem cell homing: rolling, crawling, and nesting. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 1998, 95(26): 15155–15157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Khaldoyanidi S. Directing stem cell homing. Cell Stem Cell, 2008, 2(3): 198–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    Nakatomi H, Kuriu T, Okabe S, et al. Regeneration of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after ischemic brain injury by recruitment of endogenous neural progenitors. Cell, 2002, 110(4): 429–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    Méndez-Ferrer S, Michurina T V, Ferraro F, et al. Mesenchymal and haematopoietic stem cells form a unique bone marrow niche. Nature, 2010, 466(7308): 829–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    Chen F M, Zhang J, Zhang M, et al. A review on endogenous regenerative technology in periodontal regenerative medicine. Biomaterials, 2010, 31(31): 7892–7927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    Gomillion C T, Burg K J L. Stem cells and adipose tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 2006, 27(36): 6052–6063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    Salcedo L, Sopko N, Jiang H H, et al. Chemokine upregulation in response to anal sphincter and pudendal nerve injury: potential signals for stem cell homing. International Journal of Colorectal Disease, 2011, 26(12): 1577–1581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    Ko I K, Lee S J, Atala A, et al. In situ tissue regeneration through host stem cell recruitment. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 2013, 45(11): e57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    Zhou B, Han Z C, Poon M C, et al. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) transfected with stromal derived factor 1 (SDF-1) for therapeutic neovascularization: enhancement of cell recruitment and entrapment. Medical Hypotheses, 2007, 68(6): 1268–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    Butler J M, Guthrie S M, Koc M, et al. SDF-1 is both necessary and sufficient to promote proliferative retinopathy. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2005, 115(1): 86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    Zernecke A, Schober A, Bot I, et al. SDF-1a/CXCR4 axis is instrumental in neointimal hyperplasia and recruitment of smooth muscle progenitor cells. Circulation Research, 2005, 96(7): 784–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. [62]
    Thevenot P, Nair A, Shen J, et al. The effect of incorporation of SDF-1a into PLGA scaffolds on stem cell recruitment and the inflammatory response. Biomaterials, 2010, 31(14): 3997–4008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. [63]
    Riccardo L, Planell J A, Mateos-Timoneda M A, et al. Role of ECM/peptide coatings on SDF-1a triggered mesenchymal stromal cell migration from microcarriers for cell therapy. Acta Biomaterialia, 2015, 18: 59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. [64]
    Nakamura T, Nishizawa T, Hagiya M, et al. Molecular cloning and expression of human hepatocyte growth factor. Nature, 1989, 342(6248): 440–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. [65]
    Patel M B, Pothula S P, Xu Z, et al. The role of the hepatocyte growth factor/c-MET pathway in pancreatic stellate cell-endothelial cell interactions: anti-angiogenic implications in pancreatic cancer. Carcinogenesis, 2014, 35(8): S9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. [66]
    Neuss S, Becher E, Wöltje M, et al. Functional expression of HGF and HGF receptor/c-met in adult human mesenchymal stem cells suggests a role in cell mobilization, tissue repair, and wound healing. Stem Cells, 2004, 22(3): 405–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. [67]
    Schenk S, Mal N, Finan A, et al. Monocyte chemotactic protein-3 is a myocardial mesenchymal stem cell homing factor. Stem Cells, 2007, 25(1): 245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. [68]
    De Becker A, Van Hummelen P, Bakkus M, et al. Migration of culture-expanded human mesenchymal stem cells through bone marrow endothelium is regulated by matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3. Haematologica, 2007, 92(4): 440–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. [69]
    Border W A, Noble N A. Transforming growth factor ß in tissue fibrosis. The New England Journal of Medicine, 1994, 331(19): 1286–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. [70]
    Huang Q, Goh J C, Hutmacher D W, et al. In vivo mesenchymal cell recruitment by a scaffold loaded with transforming growth factor ß1 and the potential for in situ chondrogenesis. Tissue Engineering, 2002, 8(3): 469–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. [71]
    Ferrara N, Davis-Smyth T. The biology of vascular endothelial growth factor. Endocrine Reviews, 1997, 18(1): 4–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. [72]
    Aiello L P, Avery R L, Arrigg P G, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor in ocular fluid of patients with diabetic retinopathy and other retinal disorders. The New England Journal of Medicine, 1994, 331(22): 1480–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. [73]
    Elçin Y M, Dixit V, Gitnick G. Extensive In vivo angiogenesis following controlled release of human vascular endothelial cell growth factor: implications for tissue engineering and wound healing. Artificial Organs, 2001, 25(7): 558–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. [74]
    Kim S H, Hur W, Kim J E, et al. Self-assembling peptide nanofibers coupled with neuropeptide substance P for bone tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering Part A, 2015, 21(7–8): 1237–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. [75]
    Zhao L, Weir M D, Xu H H K. An injectable calcium phosphatealginate hydrogel-umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell paste for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 2010, 31(25): 6502–6510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. [76]
    Olmos Buitrago J, Perez R A, El-Fiqi A, et al. Core–shell fibrous stem cell carriers incorporating osteogenic nanoparticulate cues for bone tissue engineering. Acta Biomaterialia, 2015, 28: 183–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. [77]
    Yilgor P, Sousa R A, Reis R L, et al. 3D plotted PCL scaffolds for stem cell based bone tissue engineering. Macromolecular Symposia, 2008, 269(1): 92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. [78]
    Ye C, Hu P, Ma M X, et al. PHB/PHBHHx scaffolds and human adipose-derived stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 2009, 30(26): 4401–4406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. [79]
    Lee C H, Cook J L, Mendelson A, et al. Regeneration of the articular surface of the rabbit synovial joint by cell homing: a proof of concept study. Lancet, 2010, 376(9739): 440–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. [80]
    Erggelet C, Endres M, Neumann K, et al. Formation of cartilage repair tissue in articular cartilage defects pretreated with microfracture and covered with cell-free polymer-based implants. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 2009, 27(10): 1353–1360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. [81]
    Wang A, Tang Z, Park I H, et al. Induced pluripotent stem cells for neural tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 2011, 32(22): 5023–5032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. [82]
    Zhuang Y M, Huojia M, Xu H, et al. Effects of transforming growth factor-ß_3 and dental pulp stem cells in repairing rabbit facial nerve injury. Journal of Chinese Practical Diagnosis and Therapy, 2015, (7) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  83. [83]
    Zhu T, Tang Q, Shen Y, et al. An acellular cerebellar biological scaffold: Preparation, characterization, biocompatibility and effects on neural stem cells. Brain Research Bulletin, 2015, 113: 48–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. [84]
    Jin G, Prabhakaran M P, Ramakrishna S. Stem cell differentiation to epidermal lineages on electrospun nanofibrous substrates for skin tissue engineering. Acta Biomaterialia, 2011, 7(8): 3113–3122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. [85]
    Healy K E, Guldberg R E. Bone tissue engineering. Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions, 2007, 7(4): 328–330Google Scholar
  86. [86]
    Barnes B, Boden S D, Louis-Ugbo J, et al. Lower dose of rhBMP- 2 achieves spine fusion when combined with an osteoconductive bulking agent in non-human primates. Spine, 2005, 30(10): 1127–1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. [87]
    Goekoop-Ruiterman Y P M, de Vries-Bouwstra J K, Allaart C F, et al. Clinical and radiographic outcomes of four different treatment strategies in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (the Best study): a randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis and Rheumatology, 2005, 52(11): 3381–3390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. [88]
    Ko I K, Lee S J, Atala A, et al. In situ tissue regeneration through host stem cell recruitment. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 2013, 45(11): e57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. [89]
    Sirko S, Neitz A, Mittmann T, et al. Focal laser-lesions activate an endogenous population of neural stem/progenitor cells in the adult visual cortex. Brain, 2009, 132(8): 2252–2264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. [90]
    Jayarama Reddy V, Radhakrishnan S, Ravichandran R, et al. Nanofibrous structured biomimetic strategies for skin tissue regeneration. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 2013, 21(1): 1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. [91]
    Kamel R A, Ong J F, Eriksson E, et al. Tissue engineering of skin. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 2013, 217(3): 533–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. [92]
    Ma K, Liao S, He L, et al. Effects of nanofiber/stem cell composite on wound healing in acute full-thickness skin wounds. Tissue Engineering Part A, 2011, 17(9–10): 1413–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yinxian Yu
    • 1
  • Binbin Sun
    • 2
  • Chengqing Yi
    • 1
  • Xiumei Mo
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai General HospitalShanghai Jiao Tong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina
  2. 2.State Key Lab for Modification of Chemical Fibers & Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and BiotechnologyDonghua UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations