Skip to main content
Log in

Seed germination techniques of Phoenix dactylifera: A new experience from Bangladesh

  • Research Article
  • Published:
Frontiers of Agriculture in China


A new experiment on seed germination technique for Phoenix dactylifera, an exotic species was conducted in the nursery of Forestry and Wood Technology Discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh. The seeds imported from Saudi Arabia were collected from Nirala Central Mosque, Khulna, Bangladesh, in September 2008 and treated with four presowing treatments (control, immersion in normal water at room temperature (20–22°C) for 12 h, immersion in sun-heated water (25–35°C) for 12 h, and immersion in hot water (50°C) for 10 h) before seed germination with different germination media (well dried loamy soil, coarse sand, mixture of coarse and fine sand at a ratio of 3:1, mixture of coarse and fine sand at a ratio of 3:2, and mixture of coarse and fine sand at a ratio of 1:1). The experiment showed that presowing treatments significantly increased the germination rates of seeds compared to those in control (68%) and hot water treatment (69%). The highest germination success (84%) was found in the immersion in normal water and sunheated water for 12 h. Experiment also showed that seed germination with course sand and mixture of coarse and fine sand with a ratio of 3:1 performed better than the loamy soil. Germination started from 21 to 26 days and completed between 38–40 days of the germination period in all treatments. ANOVA showed a significant difference among the treatments in seed germination, but there was no significant difference among the media in seed germination. Normal water and sun-heated water for 12 h for pretreatment and coarse sand or mixture of coarse and fine sand at a ratio of 3:1 may be recommended for seed germination of the species in rural Bangladesh.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Airi S, Bhatt I D, Bhatt A, Rawal R S, Dhar U (2009). Variations in seed germination of Hippophae salicifolia with different presoaking treatments. J For Res, 20(1): 27–30

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alam M A, Matin M A, Hoque M M, Hoque A T M R (2005). Seed morphology and germination of Ipil-Ipil (Leocaena leococephala (Lam.) De Wit.) under different conditions at nursery stage in Bangladesh. Asian J Plant Sci, 4(2): 98–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alamgir M, Hossain M K (2005a). Effect of pre-sowing treatments on Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth seeds and initials development of seedlings in the nursery. Journal of Forestry and Environment, 3: 53–60

    Google Scholar 

  • Alamgir M, Hossain M K (2005b). Effect of pre-sowing treatments on germination and initials seedling development of Albizia saman in the nursery. J For Res, 16(3): 200–204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Azad M S, Islam M W, Matin M A, Bari M A (2006a). Effect of presowing treatment on seed germination of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. South Asian Journal of Agriculture, 1(2): 32–34

    Google Scholar 

  • Azad M S, Matin M A, Islam M W, Musa M Z A (2006b). Effect of presowing treatment on seed germination of Lohakath (Xylia kerrii Craib & Hutch.). Khulna University Studies, 7(2): 33–36

    Google Scholar 

  • Azad M S, Musa M Z A, Matin M A (2010a). Effect of pre-sowing treatments on seed germination of Melia azedarach. J For Res, 21(2): 193–196

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Azad M S, Paul N K, Matin M A (2010b). Do pre-sowing treatments affect seed germination in Albizia richardiana and Lagerstroemia speciosa? Front Agric China, 4(2): 181–184

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Banks K, Marcus J (1999). A practical guide to germinating palm seeds. Palms, Journal of the International Palm Society, 56–59

  • BBS (1993). Statistical pocket book of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning, Govt of Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh

  • Catalan L A, Macchiavelli R E (1991). Improving germination in Prospis flexuosa D.C. and P. alba Griseb. with hot water treatments and scarification. Seed Science and Technology, 19: 253–262

    Google Scholar 

  • Doijode S D (2001). Date Palm: Phoenix dactylifera L. Seed Storage of Horticultural Crops. Binghamton, USA: Food product press

    Google Scholar 

  • Duncan D B (1955). Multiple Ranges and Multiple F-tests. Biometrics, 11(1): 1–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hilgeman R H (1954). The differentiation, development and anatomy of the axillary bud, inflorescence and offshoot in the date palm. Date Growers’ Inst Rep, 31: 6–10

    Google Scholar 

  • Hore J K, Sen S K (1996). Viability of date palm seed under different pre-storage treatment. Curr Res, 25: 45–56

    Google Scholar 

  • Khasa P D (1992). Scarification of limba seeds with hot water, bleach and acid. Tree Planters Note, 43(4): 150–152

    Google Scholar 

  • Kitzke E D (1958). A method for germinating Copernicia palm seeds. Principes, 2: 5–8

    Google Scholar 

  • Knight R Jr (1980). Origin and world importance of tropical and subtropical fruit crops. In: Nagy S, Shaw P E, eds. Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. AVI, Westport, CT1-120

  • Kobmoo B, Hellum A K (1984). Hot water and acid improve the germination of Cassia siamea Britt Seeds. The Embryan, 1(1): 27–33

    Google Scholar 

  • Koirala B, Hossain M K, Hossain M S (2000). Effects of different presowing treatments on Adenanthera pavonia L. seeds and initial seedling development in the nursery. Malaysian Forester, 63(2): 82–91

    Google Scholar 

  • Maguire J D (1962). Speed of germination in selection and evaluation for seedling vigor. Crop Sci, 2: 176–177

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meerow A W (1990). Palm seed germination. IFAS Cooperative Extension Bulletin, 274: 1–10

    Google Scholar 

  • Nixon RW, Carpenter J B (1978). Growing Dates in the United States. U S Dept of Agriculture, Agric Information Bulletin No. 207: USDA Technical Document 63

  • Tackholm V, Drar M (1973). Flora of Egypt. Vol II Otto Koeltz Antiquariat

  • Tisserat B H (1979). Tissue culture of the date palm. J Hered, 70: 221–222

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Md. Salim Azad.

About this article

Cite this article

Azad, M.S., Rahman, M.T. & Matin, M.A. Seed germination techniques of Phoenix dactylifera: A new experience from Bangladesh. Front. Agric. China 5, 241–246 (2011).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: