To compare the usage and cost of analgesics (opioid and non-opioids), antiemetics, and IV fluids and its associated costs in robotic vs open staging surgery for endometrial cancer (EC). This retrospective study was performed at a single academic institution from January 2014 to June 2017 in the department of Gynecology Oncology at Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Kerala, India. The study included women with biopsy confirmed clinically early stage endometrial cancer or atypical hyperplasia, who underwent robotic-assisted or open staging surgery. Data on surgical time, blood loss, post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) stay, and length of hospital (LOH) stay; analgesic, antiemetic, and IV fluid use were collected for three distinct periods: intra-operative, PACU, and ward. Direct medicine and material costs associated with the administration of intravenous (IV) fluids, analgesics, and antiemetics were collected. All parameters were compared between two surgical groups. The study included 133 (54 open and 79 robotic-assisted) patients. As compared to open surgery, robotic-assisted surgery was associated with significantly reduced: surgical time (p = 0.007), estimated blood loss (p < 0.001), PACU stay (p < 0.001), LOH stay (p < 0.001); IV fluids (crystalloid and colloid; p < 0.001); opioids (p < 0.001), non-opioids (intravenous acetaminophen, oral acetaminophen, diclofenac; all p < 0.001); incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting and the requirement of rescue antiemetics (p < 0.001). EC staging using robotic-assisted surgery was associated with significantly lower medicine and material costs attributed to IV fluids, analgesia, and antiemetics (p < 0.001). As compared to open surgery, robotic surgery was associated with the total saving of $107.7 ($19.5 in IV fluids, $49.2 in analgesics, $1.33 in antiemetics, and $37.8 in material). Robotic-assisted surgical staging for endometrial cancer is associated with decreased requirement and expenditure attributable to post-operative pain, post-operative nausea and vomiting, and maintenance and replacement fluid therapy.
Endometrial cancer Open surgery Robotic-assisted surgery Intravenous fluids Analgesics Antiemetics Costs
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Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Authors Reshu Agarwal and Unnikrishnan U G declare that they have no conflict of interest. Author Anupama Rajanbabu is a proctor and advanced trainer for Robotic surgery.
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000.
Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
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