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Journal of Robotic Surgery

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 49–58 | Cite as

Robot-assisted laparoscopic transperitoneal infrarenal lymphadenectomy in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer by single docking: Do we need a backup procedure?

  • Fatih Gucer
  • Selim Misirlioglu
  • Nuri Ceydeli
  • Cagatay Taskiran
Original Article

Abstract

To present our initial experience on the feasibility of robotic transperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy up to left renal vein via single docking approach by high port insertion technique followed by left shoulder docking as a rescue backup procedure in surgically obstructed patients undergoing surgical staging because of locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Prospective observational preliminary study. Canadian Task Force classification II-3. Tertiary-care academic affiliated private hospital. Ten patients with LACC who underwent robotic transperitoneal infrarenal para-aortic lymphadenectomy between January 2012 and December 2014. All patients with pathologically proven cervical cancer underwent a PET/CT scanning in a similar fashion at the department of nuclear medicine. PET/CT scans were evaluated by the nuclear medicine specialist. Following pre-operative work-up, robot-assisted transperitoneal infrarenal para-aortic lymphadenectomy was performed up to left renal vein by the same experienced surgeon. Sections of 5 mm were performed and stained with routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), and node count was done separately by experienced gynecopathologist. During the study period, 12 consecutive patients with LACC were counseled for pre-therapeutic robot-assisted transperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy. Two patients declined the procedure and underwent standardized chemo-radiation therapy whereas remaining ten patients constituted the study group. In the study group, the median age was 46 years (range 33–59 years), and the median body mass index 28.5 kg/m2 (range 18.5–35.1 kg/m2). Clinical staging was stage IIB in four patients, IIIB in four, and IVA in one. Histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma in nine patients, and adenocarcinoma in one. On PET/CT scans, seven out of ten patients were positive for pelvic lymph node metastasis. With respect to para-aortic area, only one of the ten patients had suspected metastasis in PET/CT. For nine patients with LACC, the median docking time was 6.5 min (range 4–15 min), and the median operating time for para-aortic lymphadenectomy was 120 min (range 60–165 min). The median trocar time was 14.5 min (range 5–45 min). In two out of ten patients, the surgical removal of whole lymphatic tissue between inferior mesenteric artery and left renal vein was not completely possible by a single docking of robotic column. Therefore, a new optic trocar was placed in the umbilicus and the robotic column was relocated over the left shoulder of the patient and residual lymphatic tissue measuring approximately 2 cm in the long axis immediately below the left renal vein was removed and the surgery was completed up to the left renal vein. All para-aortic lymphadenectomies have been completed by robotic route. There were no intra-operative complications. No patient received a blood transfusion. Early post-operative grade 2 and 3a complications according to Dindo classification occurred in two patients: one symptomatic lymphocyst and one local infection on assistant port site in one patient. The patient with suspected para-aortic lymph node metastasis in PET/CT showed no metastatic disease on histopathologic exam of para-aortic lymph nodes. The patient with recurrent disease and negative para-aortic lymph nodes on frozen section examination underwent robot-assisted total pelvic exenteration. Five of the residual eight patients had histologically proven metastasis in the para-aortic lymph node(s). Treatment modification occurred in six patients related to pre-treatment staging surgery. According to pathological results, extended field radiation therapy has been added in five patients and it was omitted in one patient. The median time interval between surgery and initiation of radiotherapy was 12 days (range 6–23 days). Robotic transperitoneal infrarenal para-aortic lymphadenectomy up to left renal vein by high port insertion technique is a safe and feasible option for staging and treatment planning. However, technically, it is obstructed in a small group of patients and nodal staging surgery up to left renal vein can be completed by consecutive left shoulder docking approach as a backup rescue plan.

Keywords

Robotic surgery Tansperitoneal Para-aortic lymphadenectomy 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fatih Gucer
    • 1
  • Selim Misirlioglu
    • 2
  • Nuri Ceydeli
    • 1
  • Cagatay Taskiran
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Gynecologic OncologyAnadolu Medical CenterIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Division of Gynecological Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyVKF Koc University School of MedicineIstanbulTurkey

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