This article investigates the impact of industrial activities on primary instruction in early nineteenth-century France. To do so, I use a newly constituted database on the location and characteristics of primary schools at the level of municipalities. This database is extracted from the Guizot survey conducted in 1833, before the implementation of the first national law making the opening of a school mandatory in any municipality more than 500 inhabitants. By using mineral deposits as an instrument, I first show that the presence of industrial activities in a given municipality was positively influencing the presence of primary schools. An increase in the supply of schools by municipalities explains this association. Additional resources transferred to them by manufactures favoured this increase through an income effect. However, I find no significant link between industry and the accumulation of human capital. On the contrary, I provide indications that industrial activities were associated with lower enrolment rates. If they had a positive impact on the demand for schooling, it was only for a very restricted part of the population.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
See Katz (2016) for an illustration in the American context.
This level corresponds to what is called “secondary education” nowadays.
This last case in which parents could benefit freely from a schooling service was extremely rare at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
A precise description of the daily life of schools and teachers in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries can be found in Duveau (1957). Analyses or testimonies on the state of primary schooling by teachers from the early nineteenth century are available in Lorain (1837) and Meunier (1981). In order to have an analysis of local schooling development in the eighteenth century, see, for example, Allain (1981), Julia (1970), Vovelle (1975) or Laget (1971). See Gildea (1983) for a local study from 1800 onwards for the departments of Ille-et-Vilaine, Gard and Nord.
See Nique (1990) to have a description of educational state measures from 1815 onwards.
This analysis has been partly contested as it did not take into account the age structure of the population (Fleury and Valmary 1957).
This is done in Fig. B1 in Appendix for online. Educational characteristics are displayed at the department level in these maps, while the analysis is at the municipal level. This is done for the sake of simplicity and clarity in the presentation of the data on education, or industry.
This idea, along with the level of industrial performance of the French economy, has been greatly debated. They have been deemed low and stagnating compared to Great-Britain in the 1940s and 1950s, before a revisionist literature insisted on the relatively good economic performance of France during the nineteenth century and on the distinctive path of growth this country followed (Crouzet 1966; O’Brien and Keyder 1978). This point of view has subsequently been qualified by authors amending the figures on French productivity growth and insisting anew on the difficulties known by the agricultural and industrial sectors compared to the British ones (Crafts 1977, 1984). See Lévy-Leboyer (1978), Mathias and Postan (1978) for an analysis of French industrial investment and Lévy-Leboyer and Bourguignon (1985) for a macroeconomic analysis of French economy along the century. See Crouzet (2003) for a historiography of French economic growth during the nineteenth century, from the “retardation-stagnation” thesis to the “moderate revisionism”. To have an economic analysis and description of the industrialisation period in France and other European countries over the century, see Braudel and Labrousse (1976), Verley (1997, 1999). For an analysis of the French case under the Ancien Régime, see, for example, Sée (1925) or Woronoff (1998).
A lot of information on this survey is available here: http://www.inrp.fr/she/guizot/.
These departments are: Ardèche, Ardennes, Cher, Corrèze, Côtes-du-Nord (Côtes D’Armor), Finistère, Gard, Gers, Indre, Indre-et-Loire, Loire-Inférieure (Loire Atlantique), Loiret, Lozère, Marne, Morbihan, Nièvre, Oise, Bas-Rhin, Saone-et-Loire, Seine-et-Marne, Deux-Sèvres and Vaucluse. At that time, there were 86 departments existing and 26 academies. Current denominations of departments are specified in brackets when a change occurred.
Excluding the three departments located on this very line.
These data can be found here https://journals.openedition.org/acrh/2890.
See Table A1 in Appendix for online.
It is possible, for industrial and demographic characteristics, to directly compare data at the level of municipalities and factories. This is what is done in Table A2 in Appendix for online. This does not modify the global picture about the representativeness of the data used. Demographic characteristics exhibit the same differences than at the district level. It is true that the percentage of municipalities with large factories now differ significantly in the sample. However, the magnitude of the difference does not indicate that municipalities in the sample were characterised by highly more concentrated industrial activities. Industrial wages and taxes on industrial activities remain comparable between factories in the sample compared to France, which indicates that the factories present in the data are comparable to the “average factory” at the national level.
More information on this survey is available in Marin and Marraud (2011a).
Descriptive statistics on agricultural controls are present in Table A3 in Appendix for online.
Taking 30 workers or 40 workers as a threshold would not change the results of the paper. This would amount to select 44% and 39% of the municipalities with industrial activities as characterised by the presence of large factories. However, above 40 workers, the restriction applied to industrial variables makes the analysis unreliable using the instrumental variable strategy presented in Sect. 4.1.
The memoirs of Louis-Arsène Meunier were not published until 1981. He lived between 1801 and 1887.
See also de Pleijt and van Zanden (2016), Mokyr (2005), Baten and van Zanden (2008) and Allen (2003) for a global analysis at the European level, Mitch (1993) for the British case. This latter estimated that, in 1841, only 4.9% of men and 2.2% of women in England were employed in jobs where literacy was absolutely required. Around half of men were employed in jobs where it had nearly no chance of being useful.
See Fig. B2 in Appendix for online.
I will also introduce fixed effects at the district level in the estimations instead of agricultural controls and department fixed effects. Since this work is cross-sectional, I do not introduce time-varying factors at these levels.
The demographic growth of municipalities with factories was 7% higher than the one of their counterparts between these 2 years. The difference remained significant even after controlling by other municipal characteristics and agricultural variables.
On this point see also (Galor et al. 2009). See pages 5 and 6 in Appendix for online to have a description of the variables used in the estimations.
I tried to use the distance to the nearest deposit as an instrument too. However, it remained weak in the first stage. This is due to several factors. First, the exploitation of mineral deposits really began to surge after the 1840s in France, which reduces its potential influence on the concentration of metallurgic factories in the surrounding municipalities. Secondly, this sector has for a long time been relying on the use of charcoal, not coal itself, and water-powered engines (Woronoff 1998). The distance between factories and the main mines was also a factor which favoured the use of these alternative resources (Crouzet 1996). Finally, even if textile and food sectors were more intensively relying on the use of steam engines powered by coal, they were still using far more water-powered engines at that time (around six times more in the food sector for example). Their location was therefore not greatly dependent on the presence of deposits in a given municipality.
There were less than seven factories per municipality in 90% of the municipalities with industrial activities. This makes the use of the number of factories difficult and increases the probability to find an effect driven by outliers or only by a small number of big towns.
These data, analysed in Aron et al. (1972), rely on the evaluation of 489,610 conscripts’ height.
See Steckel (1995) for a review of the literature on this point.
This is in line with descriptive statistics showing that schools were located in municipalities with a higher population, in 1793 and 1833, and a lower population dispersion. See Table A4 in Appendix for online.
Descriptively, there is a strong association between schools and factories since, in 79% of the municipalities with a factory, a school was also present. See Table A5 in Appendix for online.
Ideally, one would like to decompose the effect of manufactures on primary schooling by taking other thresholds on the number of workers. However, this would often amount to restricting data too much for any econometric analysis. This is also why I stick to factories with more than 20 workers to measure the impact of large manufactures on primary instruction.
Logit estimations lead to similar results. Odds ratio indicates that the presence of a primary school in a given municipality was around 1.7 times more likely when a (large) factory was located in the same area. The increase was of, respectively, 1.2 for any additional factory. However, the outcomes are only significant when agricultural controls are introduced without department fixed effects, except for the number of factories. See Table A6 in Appendix for online.
It relies on a test robust to clustering developed by Wooldridge.
The stock interpretation is less interesting here as mining activities were present in only 1.21% of municipalities.
The difference between the two being significant at a 1-per cent level. This is coherent with what was found in other studies on the effect of mining activities, and especially coal, on the development of cities (Fernihough and O’Rourke 2014).
See Table A7 in Appendix for online.
See Table A8 in Appendix for online.
See Tables A9 and A10 in Appendix for online.
Even if the evaluation of these returns by families is far from obvious (Jensen 2010).
The greater investment of businessmen into the schooling system was also due to the will to bypass factory laws aiming at regulating child work. This was especially the case in France after the passing of the 1841 law, the first one defining an upper bound on day-work hours for children depending on their age.
See Table A11 in Appendix for online.
Logit estimations also lead to the identification of a positive and significant association between the presence of large factories and the probability for a teacher to be paid. The coefficients are significant at a five- or 1-per cent level. Odds ratio indicates that teachers were around 1.5 times more likely to be paid regularly when a large factory was located in the same municipality. Results are available upon request.
See Table A12 in Appendix for online.
See Tables A13 and A14 in Appendix for online.
One may consider municipal investment as a potential residue to parents’ willingness to pay for education. However, municipalities invested more in instruction in richer areas where enrolment rates were on average higher (Montalbo 2019). As a consequence, industry is not likely to have influenced the public supply of education because parents were less willing to school their children in the municipalities at stake.
One of the four direct taxes, the quatre vieilles, implemented by the Assemblée Constituante in 1791, along with the land tax, the personal property tax and the tax on doors and windows (implemented in 1798).
See Table A15 in Appendix for online.
See Table A16 in Appendix for online.
See Table A17 in Appendix for online.
This rise went hand in hand with a fall in the age at which children were starting to work.
The employment of children during the industrial revolution has been questioned in the English case. The reliability of quantitative data and assumptions made about the work of farmers’ children were central in this debate. On this point, see Cunningham (1990) and the replies Kirby (2005) and Cunningham (2005).
Around 145,000 children under 16 years old were working in the industry according to the industrial survey, two-third of them in textile manufactures.
Cotton industry was rapidly expanding at the beginning of the nineteenth century in France, especially in the Haut-Rhin department, in towns like Mulhouse or villages like Thann and Dornach and, for the department of Seine-Inférieure (named Seine-Maritime nowadays), in towns like Elbeuf. The negative effect of industrial activities on child work also seems to have been reinforced by the poor enforcement of factory laws in the time period following the one under scrutiny in this study. See, for example, Saito (2006), Weissbach (1977) and Pierrard (1974, 1987) in the case of the 1841 law regulating child work in French manufactures.
See Table A18 in Appendix for online.
These differences are significant at a 1-per cent level for both t tests depending on the presence of factories or large factories. The variation in enrolment rate levels between big and small municipalities can be explained by the age structure of the population and by the migration of young workers towards bigger towns.
Taking winter enrolment makes more sense than taking summer enrolment. Indeed, as many pupils had to assist adults in agricultural tasks, they attended school only between October and April months.
See Table A19 in Appendix for online.
See Table A19 in Appendix for online to have a decomposition by the 16 sectors reported in the industrial survey. These percentages are computed for France and are not restricted to the 22 departments in my database.
Textile factories were located in 308 municipalities in the data, building manufactures in 157.
See Table A20 in Appendix for online to have the average industrial wages by sector.
See Table A21 in Appendix for online.
In 80.4% of the cases, there was only one school in the municipality. When several schools were present, I took the average value of schooling years and number of subjects taught between them.
They were so in, respectively, 99.4, 98.4 and 92.1% of the primary schools for which this information is available. Arithmetic was taught in 62% of the schools, grammar in 44%, spelling in 49%, geography and linear drawing in 7%, land surveying in 10%, history and music in around 3%.
This is also true for the volume of industrial production.
Moreover, I find no impact in the OLS estimations of the mere presence of factories on the number of subjects. This makes the interpretation of the positive association with large factories and the industrial production as an industry-specific effect even more doubtful.
See Table A22 in Appendix for online.
These other types were water, wind and animal-traction engines.
There was 0.9 of them on average in municipalities with large factories against 0.01 in municipalities with manufactures with less than 20 workers and 1.8 in municipalities with mines.
Allain E (1881) L’instruction primaire en France avant la Révolution. Tardieu, Paris
Allen RC (2003) Progress and poverty in early modern Europe. Econ Hist Rev 56(3):403–443
Allen RC (2009) Engels’ pause: technical change, capital accumulation, and inequality in the British industrial revolution. Explor Econ Hist 46(4):418–435
Angrist JD, Pischke JS (2008) Mostly harmless econometrics: an empiricist’s companion. Princeton University Press, Princeton
Aron J-P, Dumont P, Le Roy Ladurie E (1972) Anthropologie du conscrit français d’après les comptes numériques et sommaires du recrutement de l’armée (1819–1826). Mouton, Paris et La Haye
Ashraf Q, Galor O (2011) Dynamics and Stagnation in the Malthusian Epoch. Am Econ Rev 101(5):2003–2041
Asselain J-C (1984) Histoire économique de la France du XVIIIe siècle à nos jours. 1. De l’Ancien Régime à la Première Guerre Mondiale. Editions du Seuil, Paris
Baten J, van Zanden JL (2008) Book production and the onset of modern economic growth. J Econ Growth 13(3):217–235
Bonneuil N (1997) Transformation of the French demographic landscape 1806–1906. Clarendon Press, Oxford
Bound J, Jaeger DA, Baker RM (1995) Problems with instrumental variables estimation when the correlation between the instruments and the endogenous explanatory variable is weak. J Am Stat Assoc 90(430):443–450
Braudel F, Labrousse E (1976) Histoire économique et sociale de la France, t.III, 1789–1880. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris
Chanut J-M, Heffer J, Mairesse J, Postel-Vinay G (2000) L’Industrie française au milieu du 19e siècle: les enquêtes de la statistique générale de la France. Recherches d’histoire et de sciences sociales. Editions de l’Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales
Conley TG (1999) Gmm estimation with cross sectional dependence. J Econom 92(1):1–45
Corbin A (1975) Pour une étude sociologique de la croissance de l’alphabétisation au XIXe siècle : l’instruction des conscrits du Cher et de l’Eure-et-Loir (1833–1883). Revue d’histoire économique et sociale 53(1):99–120
Crafts NFR (1977) Industrial revolution in England and France: some thoughts on the question, “Why was England First?”. Econ Hist Rev 30(3):429–441
Crafts NFR (1984) Economic growth in France and Britain. 1830–1910: a review of the evidence. J Econ Hist 44(1):49–67
Crouzet F (1966) Angleterre et France au XVIIIe siécle: essai d’analyse comparée de deux croissances économiques. Annales Économies, Sociétés, Civilisations 21(2):254–291
Crouzet F (1970) Essai de construction d’un indice annuel de la production industrielle française au XIXe siècle. Annales Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations 25(1):56–99
Crouzet F (1996) Histoire de la France industrielle. In: chapter La première révolution industrielle, Lévy-Leboyer (1996), pp 62–93
Crouzet F (2003) The historiography of French economic growth in the nineteenth century. Econ Hist Rev 56(2):215–242
Cunningham H (1990) The employment and unemployment of children in England c. 1680–1851. Past Present 126:115–150
Cunningham H (2000) The decline of child labour: labour markets and family economics in Europe and North America since 1830. Econ Hist Rev 53(3):409–428
Cunningham H (2005) How many children were “Unemployed in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century England? Reply. Past Present 187:203–215
Cunningham H, Viazzo PP (1996) Child labour in historical perspective—1800–1895: case studies from Europe, Japan and Colombia. Number 3. Historical perspectives. International Child Development Centre, Florence
de Pleijt AM (2018) Human capital formation in the long run: evidence from average years of schooling in England, 1300–1900. Cliometrica 12:99–126
de Pleijt AM, van Zanden JL (2016) Accounting for the “Little Divergence: what drove economic growth in pre-industrial Europe, 1300–1800? Eur Rev Econ Hist 20:387–409
de Pleijt AM, Weisdorf JL (2016) Human capital formation from occupations: the “deskilling hypothesis” revisited. Cliometrica 11(1):1–30
de Pleijt AM, Nuvolari A, Weisdorf J (2018) Human capital formation during the first industrial revolution: evidence from the use of steam engines. CEPR discussion paper, DP12987
Demonet M (1990) Tableau de l’agriculture française au milieu du 19e siècle: l’enquête de 1852. Ecoles des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris
Diebolt C, Le Chapelain C, Menard A-R (2017a) Industrialization as a deskilling process? Steam engines and human capital in XIXth century France. Working papers of BETA, 17
Diebolt C, Menard A-R, Perrin F (2017b) Behind the fertility-education nexus: what triggered the French development process? Eur Rev Econ Hist 21:357–392
Dunham AL (1953) La révolution industrielle en France (1815–1848). Librairie Marcel Rivière et Cie, Paris
Dupin C (1826) Effets de l’enseignement populaire de la lecture, de l’écriture et de l’arithmétique, de la géométrie et de la mécanique appliquée aux arts, sur la prospérité de la France. Paris
Duveau G (1957) Les instituteurs. Le temps qui court, Éditions du Seuil, Paris
Feldman NE, van der Beek K (2015) Skill choice and skill complementarity in eighteenth century England. Explor Econ Hist 59:94–113
Fernihough A, O’Rourke KH (2014) Coal and the European industrial revolution. NBER working paper, 19802
Fleury M, Valmary P (1957) Les progrès de l’instruction élémentaire de louis XIV à Napoléon III, d’après l’enquête de Louis Maggiolo (1877–1879). Population 1:71–92
Franck R, Galor O (2017) Technology-skill complementarity in the early phase of industrialization. NBER working paper, 23197
Furet F, Ozouf J (1977a) Lire et écrire, l’alphabétisation des Français de Calvin à Jules Ferry I. Les Editions de Minuit
Furet F, Ozouf J (1977b) Lire et écrire, l’alphabétisation des Français de Calvin à Jules Ferry II. Les Editions de Minuit
Furet F, Sachs W (1974) La croissance de l’alphabétisation en France. Annales Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations 29(3):714–737
Galor O, Moav O (2006) Das human-kapital: a theory of the demise of the class structure. Rev Econ Stud 73:85–117
Galor O, Moav O, Vollrath D (2009) Inequality in land ownership, the emergence of human capital promoting institutions, and the Great Divergence. Rev Econ Stud 73(1):143–179
Gildea R (1983) Education in provincial France, 1800–1914: a study of three departments. Clarendon Press, Oxford
Goldin C, Katz LF (1997) Why United States led in education: lessons from secondary school expansion, 1910 to 1940. NBER working paper (6144)
Goldin C, Sokoloff K (1982) Women, children and industrialization in the Early Republic: evidence from the manufacturing censuses. J Econ Hist 42(4):741–774
Gontard M (1959) L’enseignement primaire en France: de la Révolution à la loi Guizot (1789–1833). Annales de l’Université de Lyon: Lettres. Les Belles Lettres
Grew R, Harrigan PJ (1986) L’offuscation pédantesque. observations sur les préoccupations de J.N Luc. Annales Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations 41(4):913–922
Grew R, Harrigan PJ (1991) School, state, and society: the growth of elementary schooling in nineteenth-century france: a quantitative analysis. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor
Guizot F (1834) Rapport au Roi par le minsistre d’Etat au département de l’Instruction publique, sur l’exécution de la loi du 28 juin 1833, relative à l’instruction primaire. De l’Imprimerie Royale, Paris
Heywood C (1988) Childhood in nineteenth-century France. Work, health and education among the classes populaires. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Hoxby C, Paserman M (1998) Overidentification tests with grouped data. NBER working paper 223
Humphries J (2010) Childhood and child labour in the British industrial revolution. Cambridge Studies in Economic History—Second Series. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Humphries J (2012) Childhood and child labour in the British industrial revolution. Econ Hist Rev 66(2):395–418
Jensen R (2010) The (perceived) returns to education and the demand for schooling. Q J Econ 125(2):515–548
Johnson R (1970) Educational policy and social control in early Victorian England. Past Present 49:96–119
Julia D (1970) L’enseignement primaire dans le diocèse de Reims à la fin de l’Ancien Régime. Annales historiques de la Révolution française 42(200):233–286
Katz O (2016) The effect of industrialization on fertility and human capital in the 19th century: evidence from the United States. Working paper
Kellenbenz H (1963) Industries rurales en occident de la fin du Moyen Age au XVIIIe siècle. Annales, Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations 18(5):833–882
Kirby P (2005) How many children were “Unemployed in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century England?”. Past Present 187:187–202
Komlos J, Hau M, Bourguinat N (2003) An anthropometric history of early-modern France. Eur Rev Econ Hist 7(2):159–189
Laget M (1971) Petites écoles en languedoc au XVIIIe siècle. Annales, Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations 26(6):1398–1418
Laqueur TW (1974) Literacy and social mobility in the Industrial Revolution in England. Past Present 64(1):96–107
Leblond M (1970) La scolarisation dans le département du Nord au XIXe siècle. Revue du Nord 52(206):387–398
Léon P (1948) Deux siècles d’activité minière et métallurgique en Dauphiné: l’usine d’Allevard (1675–1870). Revue de géographie alpine, tome 36(2):215–258
Lepetit B (1988) Les villes dans la France moderne (1740–1840). Albin Michel, Paris
Lorain P (1837) Tableau de l’instruction primaire. Hachette, Paris
Luc J-N (1986) L’illusion statistique. Annales Économies, Sociétés, Civilisations 4:887–911
Luc J-N, Gavoille J (1987) Faut-il brûler la statistique de l’enseignement primaire? Histoire de l’éducation 33:47–64
Lévy-Leboyer M (1968) Les processus d’industrialisation: le cas de l’Angleterre et de la France. Revue Historique, T.239 (Fasc.2),
Lévy-Leboyer M (1978) The Cambridge economic history of Europe. The industrial economies: capital, labour and enterprise, chapter Capital Investment and Economic Growth in France, 1820–1930. Volume VII. Part 1 of Mathias and Postan, pp 231–295
Lévy-Leboyer M (1996) Histoire de la France industrielle. Larousse, Paris
Lévy-Leboyer M, Bourguignon F (1985) L’Économie française au XIXe siècle. Economica. Analyse macro-économique, Paris
Mathias P, Postan MM (1978) The Cambridge economic history of Europe. The Industrial Economies: capital, labour and enterprise, part 1, vol VII. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Mayeur F (2004) Hitoire de l’enseignement et de l’éducation III. 1789–1930. Editions Perrin, Paris
Mendels F (1972) Proto-Industrialization: the first phase of the Industrialization process. J Econ Hist 32(1):241–261
Meunier L-A (1981) Mémoires d’un ancêtre ou les tribulations d’un instituteur percheron. Cahiers percherons, 1er et 2è trimestre, pp 65–66
Mitch D (1993) The British Industrial Revolution: An Economic Perspective, chapter The role of human capital in the first industrial revolution. In: Mokyr, pp 267–307
Mokyr J (1993) The British Industrial Revolution: an economic perspective. Westview Press, Boulder
Mokyr J (2005) The intellectual origins of modern economic growth. J Econ Hist 65(2):285–351
Montalbo A (2019) Schools without a law: primary education in France from the Revolution to the Guizot Law. PSE working papers 2019-18
Moulton B (1986) Random group effects and the precision of regression estimates. J Econom 32:385–397
Moulton B (1990) An illustration of a pitfall in estimating the effects of aggregate variables on micro units. Rev Econ Stat 72(2):334–338
Nardinelli C (1980) Child labor and the Factory Acts. J Econ Hist 40(4):739–55
Nardinelli C (1990) Child labor and the Industrial Revolution. Indiana University Press, Bloomington
Nicholas SJ, Nicholas JM (1992) Male literacy, “Deskilling” and the Industrial Revolution. J Interdiscip Hist 23(1):1–18
Nique C (1990) Comment l’Ecole devint une affaire d’Etat. Editions Nathan, Paris
O’Brien P, Keyder C (1978) Economic growth in Britain and France, 1780–1914: two paths to the twentieth century. G. Allen & Unwin, London
Pierrard P (1974) L’enseignement primaire à Lille sous la Monarchie de Juillet. Revue du Nord 56(220):1–11
Pierrard P (1987) Enfants et jeunes ouvriers en France (XIXe–XXe siècle). Les éditions ouvrières, Paris
Prost A (1968) Histoire de l’enseignement en France: 1800–1967. Collection V. Série Histoire Contemporaine. Colin, Paris
Richard G (1962) La Grande Metallurgie en Haute-Normandie à la fin du XVIIIe siècle. Annales de Normandie 12(4):263–289
Roncayolo M (1987) Population agglomérée, villes et bourgs en France : réflexions sur les enquêtes de 1809–1811. Villes et territoire pendant la période napoléonienne (France et Italie). Actes du colloque de Rome (3–5 mai 1984) École Française de Rome, Rome, pp 201–220
Rosanvallon P (1985) Le moment Guizot. Editions Gallimard, Paris
Saito Y (2006) Le problème du travail des enfants en Alsace au XIXe siècle: l’industriel alsacien et la loi du 22 mars 1841. Histoire, économie et société 25(2):181–193
Sanderson M (1972) Literacy and social mobility in the Industrial Revolution in England. Past Present 56(1):75–104
Savoie P (2014) Les caractères originaux de l’histoire de l’Etat enseignant français, XIXe–XXe siècles. Histoire de l’éducation 140–141:11–29
Schofield RS (1973) Dimensions of illiteracy, 1750–1850. Explor Econ Hist 10(4):437–454
Shore-Sheppard L (1996) The precision of instrumental variables estimates with grouped data. Working paper 374. Princeton University, Industrial Relations Section
Squicciarini M, Voigtländer N (2015) Human capital and industrialization: evidence from the age of enlightenment. Q J Econ 30(4):1825–1883
Steckel RH (1995) Stature and the standard of living. J Econ Lit 33(4):1903–1940
Sée H (1925) L’évolution commerciale et industrielle de la France sous l’Ancien Régime. Marcel Giard, Paris
Verley P (1997) La Révolution industrielle. Editions Gallimard, Paris
Verley P (1999) La première révolution industrielle. Armand Colin, Paris
Villermé LR (1829) Mémoire sur la taille de l’homme en France. Annales d’hygiène publique et de médecine légale, Série 1(1):351–404
Villermé LR (1971) Tableau de l’état physique et moral des ouvriers employés dans les manufactures de coton, de laine et de soie. 10/18, 1971, 1840
Vovelle M (1975) Y a-t-il eu une révolution culturelle au XVIIIe siècle? A propos de l’éducation populaire en Provence. Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine 22(1):89–141
Weissbach LS (1977) Child labor legislation in nineteenth-century France. J Econ Hist 37(1):268–271
West EG (1978) Literacy and the industrial revolution. Econ Hist Rev 31(3):369–383
Woronoff D (1998) Histoire de l’industrie en France. Du XVIe siècle à nos jours. Éditions du Seuil
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
I am grateful to Jerôme Bourdieu, Lionel Kesztenbaum, Eric Maurin and Quentin Lippman for helpful comments. I would like to thank Anne-Marie Chartier and André Oliva for helping me access the archives and sharing data on the Guizot survey. I am also grateful to participants at the seminars in the Paris School of Economics, 67th Annual Meeting of the French Economic Association and 35èmes Journées de Microéconomie Appliquée.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Montalbo, A. Industrial activities and primary schooling in early nineteenth-century France. Cliometrica 14, 325–365 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11698-019-00191-0
- Primary instruction
- Industrial activities
- Nineteenth-century France