, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 289–295 | Cite as

Inequality in the very long run: Malthus, Kuznets, and Ohlin

  • Peter H. Lindert
  • Jeffrey G. WilliamsonEmail author
Original Paper


What happened to the inequality of real income and wealth before, during, and after the Industrial Revolution? Just as the usual Industrial Revolution era (1750-1850) has been revised by historians of economic growth, so too the articles in this issue follow the lead of Van Zanden (1995) in opening up a new inequality history for earlier eras and other continents. Three of them offer new evidence on European wealth and income inequality movements in pre-industrial and industrial epochs. The fourth offers a new perspective on Latin American experience since the late nineteenth century, reporting a twentieth-century experience quite unlike the Great Leveling that Kuznets and others saw in Europe and the USA from World War 1 to the 1970s.


Inequality Income inequality Wealth inequality 

JEL Classification

N10 N23 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of California-DavisDavisUSA
  2. 2.Harvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

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