Skip to main content
Log in

Determination of aliphatic aldehydes C1–C5 with headspace solid phase microextraction in tap water: derivatization in-solution versus on-fiber

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Chemical Papers Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Short-chain aliphatic aldehydes are hazardous environmental pollutants and important biomarkers of various diseases. The development of effective methods for the determination of short-chain aliphatic aldehydes in samples with complex matrices remains an urgent task owing to their harmful effects on living organisms. To choose the optimal method of sample preparation, two types of derivatization of C1–C5 aliphatic aldehydes, in-solution and on-fiber, with O-(2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine are compared in this work in combination with headspace solid phase microextraction and GC/FID detection. Research on a limited number of analytes of one homologous series, C1–C5 aliphatic aldehydes, and detailed optimization of microextraction and derivatization parameters can significantly increase the extraction recovery, enrichment factors, and improve the sensitivity of the method. It was demonstrated that headspace solid phase microextraction with in-solution derivatization is more effective than with on-fiber derivatization. The extraction recovery of C3–C5 aldehydes was above 70%, and the enrichment factor was more than 7.5 × 103 for C1–C5 aldehydes. The developed method allows to detect C1–C5 aliphatic aldehydes with limits of detection from 100 to 400 ng L−1. The method is simple and fast, and meets the requirements of “green chemistry.” Tap water was analyzed for aliphatic aldehydes C1–C5 using the developed method. It was shown that the formaldehyde concentration was less than the environmental quality standards for fresh water (EU). In addition, it has been established that the formation of oximes takes place simultaneously on-fiber and in-solution during headspace solid phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization. Primarily, it concerns the derivatives of short-chain aliphatic aldehydes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

Similar content being viewed by others

References

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the LLC “ALSI-CHROM”, Kyiv, Ukraine, especially, Dr. Esaulenko Andriy, Director of the LLC “ALSI-CHROM” for financial support of this research.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Maryna Zui.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zakharkiv, I., Zui, M. & Zaitsev, V. Determination of aliphatic aldehydes C1–C5 with headspace solid phase microextraction in tap water: derivatization in-solution versus on-fiber. Chem. Pap. 78, 435–445 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11696-023-03100-y

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11696-023-03100-y

Keywords

Navigation