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Removal of cationic dyes onto java plum leaves ash: adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic and characterizations

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Java plum leaves ash (JLA) was prepared by calcination (400 °C) to remove cationic dyes Methylene blue dye (MBD), Acridine orange dye (AOD), and Crystal violet dye (CVD) from aqueous solutions. Multiple physiochemical and microanalytical methods, including SEM, EDX, FTIR, TGA and XRD, were used to characterize JLA. This research aims to investigate the viability of JLA as a novel adsorbent and the mechanism of its adsorption for cationic dyes. In addition, the effects of solution pH, various dye concentrations, adsorbent dosages, stirring speed, and adsorption time on JLA adsorption performance are studied. The adsorption analyses showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of MBD, AOD, and CVD are 75.87, 110.37, and 92.33 mg/g, respectively. This is much greater than other adsorbates described in the literature, suggesting the viability of JLA as a novel adsorbent within 20–60 min of contact time from an initial 100 mg/L dye solution with a dosage of 0.1 g/ml adsorbent at pH 6 and room temperature. The Langmuir isotherm, Freundlich isotherm, and Temkin isotherm models most accurately represent adsorption behaviour.

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The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due to privacy concerns but may be available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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  • 01 September 2023

    The original online version of this article was revised: to update the university of corresponding author.



Acridine orange dye


Crystal violet dye


Differential thermal analysis


Derivative thermogravimetry


Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy


Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


Java plum leaves ash


Methylene blue dye


Scanning electron microscope


Thermogravimetric analysis


X-ray diffraction


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The authors gratefully acknowledge sample analysis support received from the Sophisticated Instrumentation Centre for Applied Research and Testing (SICART), Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat and Sophisticated Analytical Instrumentation Facility (SAIF & CIL), Chandigarh, Punjab. The authors acknowledge Dr Sunil Chaki, Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Anand, Gujarat for providing TGA, DTA and DTG measurement facilities and fruitful discussions. One of the authors (MRP) is grateful to SHODH ScHeme of Developing High Quality Research (KCG/SHODH/2020-21), Knowledge Consortium of Gujarat, Government of Gujarat for the scholarship.


SHODH—ScHeme of Developing High-Quality Research, Knowledge Consortium of Gujarat, (Education Department, Government of Gujarat. Letter Reference no: KCG/SHODH/2020–21/ & Grant number: 202010820024.

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Dr. Arvnabh Mishra has given guidance & idea about this work, and he has supervised, monitored, and revised the manuscript. Dr. Manish Mishra has mentored me throughout the manuscript writing and in the collection of data. Meera R. Popaliya has collected data, designed the manuscript and written the main text, and revised the manuscript. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Arvnabh Mishra.

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The original online version of this article was revised: to update the university of corresponding author.

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Popaliya, M.R., Mishra, M. & Mishra, A. Removal of cationic dyes onto java plum leaves ash: adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic and characterizations. Chem. Pap. 77, 7881–7901 (2023).

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