Skip to main content

Eco-friendly synthesis and characterizations of Ag/AgO/Ag2O nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Solanum elaeagnifolium for antioxidant, anticancer, and DNA cleavage activities

Abstract

The biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) using a plant extract is rapid, simple, efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly. This study investigated selective pharmacological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, and DNA cleavage of S. elaeagnifolium-mediated green synthesizing Ag/AgO/Ag2O NPs. To the best of our knowledge, S. elaeagnifolium has been the first time used to synthesize Ag/AgO/Ag2O NPs. The synthesized NPs were explored by using UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and photoluminescence analyses. Anticancer activity of Ag/AgO/Ag2O NPs was tested on lung cancer cell lines (A-549) and showed activity at the IC50 of 67.09 μg/mL. The maximum 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity were 25.78% and 20.86% at 100 µg/L, respectively. Moreover, S. elaeagnifolium-mediated green synthesized Ag/AgO/Ag2O NPs exhibited considerable DNA cleavage activity. These results assured that the synthesized Ag/AgO/Ag2O NPs using S. elaeagnifolium leaves extract may have potential applications in biomedical engineering.

Graphical abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

Abbreviations

Ag:

Silver

DFT:

Density functional theory

DMSO:

Dimethyl sulphoxide

DNA:

Deoxyribonucleic acid

EDTA:

Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid

EDX:

Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

FTLR:

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

HRTEM:

High-resolution transmission electron microscopy

IC50 :

Half maximal inhibitory concentration

MTT:

3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide

NPs:

Nanoparticles

PL:

Photoluminescence

SAED:

Selected area electron diffraction

SELE:

Solanum elaeagnifolium Leaves extract

SEM:

Scanning electron microscopy

UVDRS:

UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

XRD:

X-ray diffraction

References

  • AlNadhari S, Al-Enazi NM, Alshehrei F, Ameen F (2021) A review on biogenic synthesis of metal nanoparticles using marine algae and its applications. Environ Res 194:110672

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Shehri BM, Shkir M, Bawazeer TM, AlFaify S, Hamdy MS (2020) A rapid microwave synthesis of Ag2S nanoparticles and their photocatalytic performance under UV and visible light illumination for water treatment applications. Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures 121:114060

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Aygün A, Özdemir S, Gülcan M, Cellat K, Şen F (2020) Synthesis and characterization of Reishi mushroom-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the biochemical applications. J Pharm Biomed Anal 178:112970

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ayodhya D, Veerabhadram G (2016) Green synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic, fluorescence and antimicrobial activities of Cochlospermum gossypium capped Ag2S nanoparticles. J Photochem Photobiol, B 157:57–69

    Google Scholar 

  • Aziz SB, Abdulwahid RT, Rasheed MA, Abdullah OG, Ahmed HM (2017) Polymer blending as a novel approach for tuning the SPR peaks of silver nanoparticles. Polymers 9:486

    PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Aziz SB, Hussein G, Brza M, Mohammed SJ, Abdulwahid RT, Raza Saeed S, Hassanzadeh A (2019) Fabrication of interconnected plasmonic spherical silver nanoparticles with enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks using quince leaf extract solution. Nanomaterials 9:1557

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Babu PJ, Doble M, Raichur AM (2018) Silver oxide nanoparticles embedded silk fibroin spuns: microwave mediated preparation, characterization and their synergistic wound healing and anti-bacterial activity. J Colloid Interface Sci 513:62–71

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Badawy A, Zayed R, Ahmed S, Hassanean H (2013) Phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Solanum elaeagnifolium growing in Egypt. J Nat Prod 6:156–167

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Balah MA, AbdelRazek GM (2020) Pesticidal activity of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav Leaves against Nematodes and Perennial Weeds. Acta Ecologica Sinica 40:373–379

    Google Scholar 

  • Bandeira M, Giovanela M, Roesch-Ely M, Devine DM, da Silva Crespo J (2020) Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles: a review of the synthesis methodology and mechanism of formation. Sustain Chem Pharm 15:100223

    Google Scholar 

  • Basnet P, Chanu TI, Samanta D, Chatterjee S (2018) A review on bio-synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles using plant extracts as reductants and stabilizing agents. J Photochem Photobiol, B 183:201–221

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Basnet P, Samanta D, Chanu TI, Mukherjee J, Chatterjee S (2019) Tea-phytochemicals functionalized Ag modified ZnO nanocomposites for visible light driven photocatalytic removal of organic water pollutants. Materials Research Express 6:085095

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bharadwaj KK, Rabha B, Pati S, Choudhury BK, Sarkar T, Gogoi SK, Kakati N, Baishya D, Kari ZA, Edinur HA (2021) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Diospyros malabarica fruit extract and assessments of their antimicrobial, anticancer and catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Nanomaterials 11:1999

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Bhosale MA, Bhanage BM (2015) Silver nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and their application as a sustainable catalyst for organic transformations. Curr Org Chem 19:708–727

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cuong HN, Pansambal S, Ghotekar S, Oza R, Hai NTT, Viet NM, Nguyen V-H (2021) New frontiers in the plant extract mediated biosynthesis of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles and their potential applications: a review. Environ Res 203:111858

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dabhane H, Ghotekar SK, Tambade PJ, Pansambal S, Ananda Murthy H, Oza R, Medhane V (2021) Cow urine mediated green synthesis of nanomaterial and their applications: a state-of-the-art review. J Water And Environ Nanotechnol 6:81–91

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Devadas B, Periasamy AP, Bouzek K (2021) A review on poly (amidoamine) dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles synthesis and usage in energy conversion and storage applications. Coord Chem Rev 444:214062

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dolgonos A, Mason TO, Poeppelmeier KR (2016) Direct optical band gap measurement in polycrystalline semiconductors: A critical look at the Tauc method. J Solid State Chem 240:43–48

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Donga S, Chanda S (2021) Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Mangifera indica seed aqueous extract and its antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential (3-in-1 system). Artif Cells, Nanomed, Biotechnol 49:292–302

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Durak T, Depciuch J (2020) Effect of plant sample preparation and measuring methods on ATR-FTIR spectra results. Environ Exp Bot 169:103915

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Durán N, Nakazato G, Seabra AB (2016) Antimicrobial activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles, and silver chloride nanoparticles: an overview and comments. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 100:6555–6570

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Elabbar FA, Bozkeha NM, El-Tuonsia AT (2014) Extraction, separation and identification of compounds from leaves of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav (Solanaceae). Int Curr Pharm J 3:234–239

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gauri B, Vidya K, Sharada D, Shobha W (2016) Synthesis and characterization of Ag/AgO nanoparticles as alcohol sensor. Res J Chem Environ 20:1–5

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gawande MB, Goswami A, Felpin F-X, Asefa T, Huang X, Silva R, Zou X, Zboril R, Varma RS (2016) Cu and Cu-based nanoparticles: synthesis and applications in catalysis. Chem Rev 116:3722–3811

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ghotekar S (2019) A review on plant extract mediated biogenic synthesis of CdO nanoparticles and their recent applications. Asian J Green Chem 3:187–200

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghotekar S, Pansambal S, Pawar SP, Pagar T, Oza R, Bangale S (2019) Biological activities of biogenically synthesized fluorescent silver nanoparticles using Acanthospermum hispidum leaves extract. SN Applied Sciences 1:1–12

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghotekar S, Dabhane H, Pansambal S, Oza R, Tambade P, Medhane V (2020) A review on biomimetic synthesis of Ag2O nanoparticles using plant extract, characterization and its recent applications. Adv J Chem-Sect B 2:102–111

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghotekar S, Pagar K, Pansambal S, Murthy HA and Oza R (2021) Biosynthesis of silver sulfide nanoparticle and its applications. In: Handbook of greener synthesis of nanomaterials and compounds, Elsevier, pp 191–200

  • Göl F, Aygün A, Seyrankaya A, Gür T, Yenikaya C, Şen F (2020) Green synthesis and characterization of Camellia sinensis mediated silver nanoparticles for antibacterial ceramic applications. Materials Chemistry and Physics 250:123037

    Google Scholar 

  • Gonzalez R, Tarloff J (2001) Evaluation of hepatic subcellular fractions for Alamar blue and MTT reductase activity. Toxicol in Vitro 15:257–259

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gulbagca F, Aygün A, Gülcan M, Ozdemir S, Gonca S, Şen F (2021a) Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization, and investigation of antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and DNA cleavage activities. Applied Organometallic Chemistry 35:e6272

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gulbagca F, Aygün A, Gülcan M, Ozdemir S, Gonca S, Şen F (2021) Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and investigation of antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and DNA cleavage activities. Appl Organomet Chem 35:e6272

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gur T, Meydan I, Seckin H, Bekmezci M, Sen F (2022) Green synthesis, characterization and bioactivity of biogenic zinc oxide nanoparticles. Environ Res 204:111897

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hamouda AB, Zarrad K, Laarif A, Chaieb I (2015) Insecticidal effect of Solanum elaeagnifolium extracts under laboratory conditions. J Entomol Zool Stud 3:187–190

    Google Scholar 

  • Hosseinpour-Mashkani SM, Ramezani M (2014) Silver and silver oxide nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization by thermal decomposition. Mater Lett 130:259–262

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ibrahim S, Ahmad Z, Manzoor MZ, Mujahid M, Faheem Z, Adnan A (2021) Optimization for biogenic microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles through response surface methodology, characterization, their antimicrobial, antioxidant, and catalytic potential. Sci Rep 11:1–18

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jain P, Agrawal R (2008) Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of developed mono-and polyherbal formulations. Asian J Exp Sci 22:213–220

    Google Scholar 

  • Jain S, Mehata MS (2017) Medicinal plant leaf extract and pure flavonoid mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their enhanced antibacterial property. Sci Rep 7:1–13

    Google Scholar 

  • Jamila N, Khan N, Bibi N, Waqas M, Khan SN, Atlas A, Amin F, Khan F, Saba M (2021) Hg (II) sensing, catalytic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer potential of Garcinia mangostana and α-mangostin mediated silver nanoparticles. Chemosphere 272:129794

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lin W (2015) Introduction: nanoparticles in medicine. Chem Rev 115:10407–10409

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lin T-H, Chen T-T, Cheng C-L, Lin H-Y, Chen Y-F (2009) Selectively enhanced band gap emission in ZnO/Ag 2 O nanocomposites. Opt Express 17:4342–4347

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Marimuthu S, Antonisamy AJ, Malayandi S, Rajendran K, Tsai P-C, Pugazhendhi A, Ponnusamy VK (2020) Silver nanoparticles in dye effluent treatment: A review on synthesis, treatment methods, mechanisms, photocatalytic degradation, toxic effects and mitigation of toxicity. J Photochem Photobiol B: Biol 205:111823

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Masterova I, Tomko J (1978) Isolation and identification of alkaloids from Frítillaria imperíalis L. var. rubra maxima. Chem zvesti 32:116–119

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Matussin S, Harunsani MH, Tan AL, Khan MM (2020) Plant-extract-mediated SnO2 nanoparticles: synthesis and applications. ACS Sustain Chem & Eng 8:3040–3054

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mousavi-Khattat M, Keyhanfar M, Razmjou A (2018) A comparative study of stability, antioxidant DNA cleavage and antibacterial activities of green and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Artif Cells, Nanomed, Biotechnol 46:S1022–S1031

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nasrollahzadeh M, Sajjadi M, Dadashi J, Ghafuri H (2020) Pd-based nanoparticles: plant-assisted biosynthesis, characterization, mechanism, stability, catalytic and antimicrobial activities. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 276:102103

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nikam A, Pagar T, Ghotekar S, Pagar K, Pansambal S (2019) A review on plant extract mediated green synthesis of zirconia nanoparticles and their miscellaneous applications. J Chem Rev 1:154–163

    Google Scholar 

  • Partila AM (2019) Bioproduction of silver nanoparticles and its potential applications in agriculture. In: Nanotechnology for agriculture, Springer, Singapore, pp 19–36

  • Patra JK, Baek K-H (2016) Green synthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles using Prunus persica L. outer peel extract and investigation of antibacterial, anticandidal, antioxidant potential. Green Chem Lett Rev 9:132–142

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rashmi B, Harlapur SF, Avinash B, Ravikumar C, Nagaswarupa H, Kumar MA, Gurushantha K, Santosh M (2020) Facile green synthesis of silver oxide nanoparticles and their electrochemical, photocatalytic and biological studies. Inorganic Chemistry Communications 111:107580

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rehana D, Mahendiran D, Kumar RS, Rahiman AK (2017) Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer activity of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized using medicinally important plant extracts. Biomed Pharmacother 89:1067–1077

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sangeetha TV, Mohanapriya S (2021) Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of heterocyclic triazole derived Schiff base ligands comprising Mn (II) complexes: Implications of their DNA/protein binding docking and anticancer activity studies. Indian Journal of Chemistry-Section A (IJCA). 60(6):797–805

    Google Scholar 

  • Santhosh A, Theertha V, Prakash P, Chandran SS (2021) From waste to a value added product: green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from onion peels together with its diverse applications. Mater Today: Proc 46:4460–4463

    Google Scholar 

  • Sathishkumar R, Sundaramanickam A, Srinath R, Ramesh T, Saranya K, Meena M, Surya P (2019) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by bloom forming marine microalgae Trichodesmium erythraeum and its applications in antioxidant, drug-resistant bacteria, and cytotoxicity activity. J Saudi Chem Soc 23:1180–1191

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Seerangaraj V, Sathiyavimal S, Shankar SN, Nandagopal JGT, Balashanmugam P, Al-Misned FA, Shanmugavel M, Senthilkumar P, Pugazhendhi A (2021) Cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles on Ruellia tuberosa: Photocatalytic degradation properties against crystal violet and coomassie brilliant blue. J Environ Chem Eng 9:105088e

    Google Scholar 

  • Shahjahan M, Rahman H, Hossain MS, Khatun MA, Islam A, Begum MHA (2017) Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles by sol-gel technique. Nanosci Nanometrol 3:34–39

    Google Scholar 

  • Sharma RK, Yadav S, Dutta S, Kale HB, Warkad IR, Zbořil R, Varma RS and Gawande MB (2021) Silver nanomaterials: synthesis and (electro/photo) catalytic applications. Chem Soc Rev

  • Shume WM, Murthy HC and Zereffa EA (2020) A review on synthesis and characterization of Ag2O nanoparticles for photocatalytic applications. J Chem, 2020

  • Singh SP, Bhargava C, Dubey V, Mishra A, Singh Y (2017) Silver nanoparticles: biomedical applications, toxicity, and safety issues. Int J Res Pharm Pharm Sci 4:01–10

    Google Scholar 

  • Soni V, Raizada P, Singh P, Cuong HN, Rangabhashiyam S, Saini A, Saini RV, Van Le Q, Nadda AK, Le T-T (2021) Sustainable and green trends in using plant extracts for the synthesis of biogenic metal nanoparticles toward environmental and pharmaceutical advances: a review. Environ Res 202:111622

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tagad CK, Dugasani SR, Aiyer R, Park S, Kulkarni A, Sabharwal S (2013) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their application for the development of optical fiber based hydrogen peroxide sensor. Sens Actuators, B Chem 183:144–149

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Thanh NT, Maclean N, Mahiddine S (2014) Mechanisms of nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in solution. Chem Rev 114:7610–7630

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Varthini T, Carmel Vijila G, Jothi M (2018) Effect of medicinal leaf extract in silver nitrate-size reduction to nanoscale. J Emerg Tech Innov Res 5:664–666

    Google Scholar 

  • Velsankar K, Sudhahar S, Parvathy G, Kaliammal R (2020) Effect of cytotoxicity and aAntibacterial activity of biosynthesis of ZnO hexagonal shaped nanoparticles by Echinochloa frumentacea grains extract as a reducing agent. Mater Chem Phys 239:121976

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Venkatesan B, Subramanian V, Tumala A, Vellaichamy E (2014) Rapid synthesis of biocompatible silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Rosa damascena petals and evaluation of their anticancer activity. Asian Pac J Trop Med 7:S294–S300

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Venugopal K, Rather H, Rajagopal K, Shanthi M, Sheriff K, Illiyas M, Rather R, Manikandan E, Uvarajan S, Bhaskar M (2017) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for anticancer activities (MCF 7 breast and A549 lung cell lines) of the crude extract of Syzygium aromaticum. J Photochem Photobiol, B 167:282–289

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vorobyova V, Vasyliev G, Skiba M (2020) Eco-friendly “green” synthesis of silver nanoparticles with the black currant pomace extract and its antibacterial, electrochemical, and antioxidant activity, Applied. Nanoscience 10:4523–4534

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Waterhouse GI, Bowmaker GA, Metson JB (2001) The thermal decomposition of silver (I, III) oxide: A combined XRD, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic study. Phys Chem Chem Phys 3:3838–3845

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yang J, Pan J (2012) Hydrothermal synthesis of silver nanoparticles by sodium alginate and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering and catalysis. Acta Mater 60:4753–4758

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yang H, Ren Y-Y, Wang T, Wang C (2016) Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract. Results Phys 6:299–304

    Google Scholar 

  • Yew YP, Shameli K, Miyake M, Khairudin NBBA, Mohamad SEB, Naiki T, Lee KX (2020) Green biosynthesis of superparamagnetic magnetite Fe3O4 nanoparticles and biomedical applications in targeted anticancer drug delivery system: a review. Arab J Chem 13:2287–2308

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ziashahabi A, Prato M, Dang Z, Poursalehi R, Naseri N (2019) The effect of silver oxidation on the photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO hybrid plasmonic/metal-oxide nanostructures under visible light and in the dark. Sci Rep 9:1–12

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Distinguished Scientist Fellowship Program (DSFP) at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Suresh Ghotekar.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Barwant, M., Ugale, Y., Ghotekar, S. et al. Eco-friendly synthesis and characterizations of Ag/AgO/Ag2O nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Solanum elaeagnifolium for antioxidant, anticancer, and DNA cleavage activities. Chem. Pap. 76, 4309–4321 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11696-022-02178-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11696-022-02178-0

Keywords

  • Green nanotechnology
  • Solanum elaeagnifolium
  • Ag/AgO/Ag2O NPs
  • Biomedical applications